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Как да флашвам правилно BIOS

#1
Потребителят е неактивен   debug 

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EDIT: 30.05.2007 Извинявам се на всички, които ми пишат ЛС с молби за помощ, но напоследък нямам време за форумите. Освен това не гарантирам доколко информацията е валидна към момента за новите дъна.



Тъй като доста често виждам въпроси за флашване на биоси, реших да споделя моя опит. Ще се радвам, ако темата стане важна и се включат и други хора с допълнителна информация. Всичко изброено тук е от интернет, не съм измислил нищо сам. Винаги може да се прецака нещо - изборът е ваш.

В какви случаи да флашвате биоса си оставям на вашата преценка.

За флашване на Award BIOS аз процедирам по следния начин:

1. Правя си стартова дискета (първо я форматирам, лошите сектори са силно нежелани в случая).

2. Изтривам от нея всички файлове без COMMAND.COM, IO.SYS, MSDOS.SYS За целта трябва да е махната отметката на explorer / tools / folder options / view "Hide protected operating system files (Recommended) По този начин си осигурявам чист DOS.

3.Създавам следния .bat файл

@echo off

if exist oldbios.bin goto old

awdflash.exe newbios.bin oldbios.bin /py /sy /cc /cp /cd /sb /r

goto end

:old

awdflash.exe oldbios.bin /py /sn /cc /cp /cd /sb /r

:end


това става най-лесно като се копира горния текст и се запази в Notepad като AUTOEXEC.BAT

4. Записвам на дискетата програмката за флашване AWDFLASH.EXE (в момента мисля, че версия 8.33 е най-новата).

5. Записвам и новия биос-файл, като му променям името на newbios.bin (или в AUTOEXEC.BAT трябва на мястото на newbios.bin да се запише името на биос-файла ви)

6. В BIOS-а проверявам дали са изключени всички shadows и cache-иране на видеобиос, системен биос и т.н.
Edit: Добре е да се изключат и настройките за Power Management Setup, Antivirus Protection, и задължително защитата от препрограмиране на BIOS, да се махне джъмпера, ако има такъв. Проверете в упътването на дънната си платка.

7. Ако е овърклокнато - всичко се връща на номинални стойности.

8. Слагам дискетата, рестартирам и само гледам. Всичко става без допълнителна намеса.
Добре е да се използва UPS. Винаги трябва да сте сигурни, че това е правилният биос за даденото дъно!!! Файловете са в zip-архив обикновено, така че възможността да са развалени е много малка.

9. След приключване на флашването компютърът се рестартира сам (или вие го рестартирате ако е с AT захранване - нямам опит с такива), изчаквам POST-а да бипне и вадя дискетата. Ако се остави, ще се флашне отново със стария биос. Правя дискетата по този начин, за да може при евентуален проблем с флашването да се флашне стария биос без моя намеса и при неработещ монитор (нямам ISA - видео карта).

Успех!
1

#2
Потребителят е неактивен   debug 

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Да добавя и значенията на всички параметри, с които може да се използва awdflash.exe.
Синтаксисът е следния:
AWDFLASH [Filename 1] [Filename 2] [key [/key ]...], където Filename 1 е името на новия биос, Filename 2 - на стария. Скобите не се пишат.

/? Помощ - дава общо взето тази информация, малко по-оскъдно.

/Py или /Pn - съответно за Yes (да) и No (не), P - Program, програмиране на EEPROM. /Py се избира когато ще се флашва биоса, /Pn - забранява програмирането на EEPROM-а и е полезно когато само ще се запазва старата версия или за да се провери checksum-а на биос-файла.
По подразбиране е /Py.

/Sy или /Sn - Save Yes/No - дали да се запази стария биос.Ще получите и запитване "Do You Want To Save Bios (Y/N)". /Sn може да се използва за .bat-файлове за флашване на машини без дисплей.

/CC - Clear CMOS - за изтриване на CMOS (вашите стари настройки на BIOS). Препоръчва се използването на този параметър, за да не възникне проблем при следващото стартиране на системата и за да не се търси джъмпера на дъното.

/CP - Clear PnP - за изтриване на данните за Plug And Play - устройствата в ESCD. Идеята е да се изтрие, за да няма проблеми при прескачане на няколко версии на BIOS или при инсталиране на ново PnP - устройство.

/CD - Clear DMI Data pool след репрограмиране - DMI е като база данни за цялата система. Може да се използва заедно с /CC и /CP със същата идея.

/SB - Save BootBlock - да не се трие bootblock-а след флашване. Много рядко се променя! Освен ако производителят на дънната платка не е споменал изрично, да не се трие BootBlock-а!
При възникване на проблем с флашването и изтрит BootBlock може да е невъзможно възстановяването на биоса по софтуерен път. Възможно е дънната платка да има джъмпер за защита против изтриване на bootblock-а - няма да може да се флашне без този параметър или ще има проблеми.

/SD - Save DMI - би трябвало да може да запази данните от DMI, но в момента не работи :) . В бъдеще може би...

/R - Reset - за автоматично рестартиране на компютъра след флашването.

/Tiny - за използване на по-малко рам по време на флашването. По начало Awdflash се опитва да копира целия биос-файл в паметта. Ако получавате съобщение за грешка "Insufficient Memory" може да се използва този параметър. Чрез него се копира на части биоса в паметта.

/E - Exit - за връщане в DOS след приключване на флашването. Например, за да проверите дали е запазен стария биос.

/F - Flash - за репрограмиране чрез системния биос.По-новите биоси поддържат процедурите по FlashROM репрограмиране. Чрез /F AwardFlash репрограмира FlashROM-а с алгоритмите на текущата версия BIOS. Използва се когато особеностите на дънната платка не позволяват прилагането на алгоритма на Award Flash Writer-а. На сайта на производителя ще е упоменато дали да се използва.

/LD - Load Defaults? - за изчистване на CMOS-а и не показване на съобщението "Press F1 to continue or DEL to setup" при рестарта.Да се използва ако преди това са били зададени default-настройки. (не съм го ползвал, ако някой има опит - да сподели).

/CKS - Check Sum - за проверка на контролната сума на XXXXf-файла. Показва се в HEX.

/CKSxxxx - за сравняване на контролната сума с XXXXf-файла. Би трябвало за всеки нов биос да я има на сайта на производителя. (аз съм виждал на сайта на epox.ru, но не и на европейския).

Горните ключове могат да се пишат с главни или малки букви. След флашване и рестарт е нормално да се появи съобщени за грешка в CMOS. Влезте в настройките на BIOS, заредете default,рестартирайте, и при второто влизане в биоса нагласете желаните параметри.

Процедурата по флашването продължава около 10 секунди, така че шансът да спре тока е минимален, но... :)
0

#3
Потребителят е неактивен   gigafive 

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Перфектно е!
Сега остава и за AMI BIOS да напишеш :)
После за видеото, даже за видеото май отделна Важна тема ще е по-добре
0

#4
Потребителят е неактивен   gfk 

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debug, няма ли да стане флаша, ако файловете AWDFLASH.EXE и NEWBIOS.BIN са на харда. Ще се промени само пътя в AUTOEXEC.BAT. Казвам го, защото нямам голямо доверие на дискетите...Винаги една дискета може да те изненада неприятно. Ако има счупени сектори и всичко отива по дяволите. Аз преди една седмица флашвах за първи път (флашнах от дискета) и умрях от страх, да не би нещо да и станало точно в този момент.
Според мен би трябвало да няма никакъв проблем, ако флаша стане от харда...Какво значение има какъв е носителя...дали е твърд диск, дискета или пък CD и т.н. То ако става така, няма да трябва и системна дискета. Ако имаш Win98 например, влизаш директно под DOS и готово.
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#5
Потребителят е неактивен   kaspy 

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gfk каза:

debug, няма ли да стане флаша, ако файловете AWDFLASH.EXE и NEWBIOS.BIN са на харда. Ще се промени само пътя в AUTOEXEC.BAT. Казвам го, защото нямам голямо доверие на дискетите...Винаги една дискета може да те изненада неприятно. Ако има счупени сектори и всичко отива по дяволите. Аз преди една седмица флашвах за първи път (флашнах от дискета) и умрях от страх, да не би нещо да и станало точно в този момент.
Според мен би трябвало да няма никакъв проблем, ако флаша стане от харда...Какво значение има какъв е носителя...дали е твърд диск, дискета или пък CD и т.н. То ако става така, няма да трябва и системна дискета. Ако имаш Win98 например, влизаш директно под DOS и готово.

Става, но при едно условие: когато се стартира компютъра, трябва да се влезне в Safe Command Prompt Only, иначе става беля. Това може да стане само ако сте с ФАТ32 и разполагате с ДОС. АКо сте с НТФС начинът е описан съвсем точно - чиста стартова дискета.
А, ако се страхувате от лошите сектори по дискетата (и с основание) - малко е гадничко, ама няма как - правите си стартово ЦД. Успех!
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#6
Потребителят е неактивен   debug 

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@gfk-разбира се, че може. Дадох го в този вариант, защото е универсален и най-лесен.
@kaspy - благодаря за допълнението. Разрових се, превеждах и писах, заразен от светлия ти пример и темата за формата.
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#7
Потребителят е неактивен   debug 

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AMI BIOS (American Megatrends)TM
Не е особено популярен, тъй като все по-малко производители на дъна го избират. Като правило се среща при ниско бюджетни системи с офис предназначение, MiniATX-дъна. Доста по-бедни настройки в сравнение с Award, почти непригоден за овърклок. С този биос имам скромен опит - 1 дъно GA 6VMML - при това отдавна и нямам спомени как точно съм постъпил.
Следва подробно обяснение за любопитните. Накратко нещата са дадени долу със синьо.
Като се разрових из архивите си попаднах на някой обяснения относно употребата на AmiFlash в диалогов режим и еквивалентните параметри при работа от командния ред. Малко известно е, че флашването на BIOS-а може да стане с която и да е програма (AwdFlash, Amiflash, Uniflash, ECSFlash и т.н.)-досега аз също съм се придържал към програмите на производителя на биоса. Програмата за флашване на Gigabyte "Flash848.exe" всъщност е Amiflash :) .За експеримента опитах да флашна дъно Soltek SL75KAV (AwardBIOS) като използвах Flash848 на Gigabyte - нямаше проблеми. Все пак из интернет се намират и предупреждения, че липсва поддръжка за някой чипсети, в частност Intel-ски. Дали се поддържа вашия чипсет се разбира лесно - при стартиране на Amiflash или еквивалентите му в диалогов режим в долното ляво каре се изписват данни за чипсета и биоса. Ако там стои "unknown" срещу някой от изброените, не препоръчвам да опитвате флаш.
Оказва се, че за разлика от биосите им, програмата за флашване на Ami е много добра и превъзхожда конкуренцията от Award. Използва DOS/4G технология (в отличие от всички други), позволяваща заобикаляне на ограниченията на DOS:
-преодолява лимита от 640kb и дава достъп до почти цялата системна памет, като използва protected-mode режим на работа на процесора.
-ограничава до минимум използването на тези 640kb като използва между 5 и 20Kb.
-осигурява пълен директен достъп до всички хардуерни устройства, например PCi-to-ISA bridge или Firmware HUB.
Особено важно е последното - DOS/4G осигурява 32-битов достъп до паметта и адресите на I/O портовете, така че всички регистри на чипсета могат да се адресират директно. Това от своя страна позволява изпълняването на някой операции в адресното пространство на флаш-чипа. На практика може да се прочете кода на производителя и видът чип директно от FlashROM-а и да се изберат подходящите алгоритми за четене и запис.

Инструкциите за създаване на стартова дискета и изключване на някой настройки в BIOS-а съвпадат с изброените за Award. На готовата стартова дискета запишете програмата за флашване Amiflash и новия биос. След рестартиране напишете името на вашия вариант на AMiflash.exe, примерно "A:Flash848.exe" за да я стартирате в диалогов режим.
При работа от командния ред синтаксисът е
"A:AMIFLASH.EXE [reflashing_file_name] [/key [/key...]]"

където reflashing_file_name е името на новия биос, /key са параметрите. Скобите не се пишат :) Повечето параметри могат да се активират или дезактивират като се използва "-" веднага след наклонената черта без празно място, например [/-V].

Диалогов режим

Основното меню се намира в горния ляв квадрант. Командите там са:
Go Ahead (Alt+G) - за извършване на флашването. Преди да се използва трябва да се укаже файла с новия биос и евентуално име, с което да се запази стария. За целта - следващото меню.
File (Alt+F) - указва пътеките и имената на файловете с новия и стария биос. При натискане на Enter започва флашването на BIOS-а! Ако е необходимо да промените допълнителните настройки, след въвеждане на пътеките натиснете Escape. При работа от командния ред може да се зададе само името на файла с новия биос,например [amiflash.exe newbios.bin]. За да запазите стария биос във файл, трябва да използвате параметъра /s [amiflash.exe /s oldbios.bin]. Диалоговият режим е изключен, след запазване програма ви връща на командния ред.
Switch (Alt+S) - за избор на настройките, с които да се извърши препрограмирането.Всеки параметър има еквивалент за работа от командния ред. Дадени са по-надолу детайлно.
Part List (Alt+P) и Chipset List (Alt+C) - за ръчно въвеждане на компонентите, необходими за правилното флашване на биоса. Това са типа на FlashRom-a и чипсета на дънната платка. Полезни са ако тези компоненти не се разпознават правилно. За целта обаче е необходимо да сте 100% сигурни във вида на чиповете. За да рестартирате автоматичното разпознаване използвайте AutoDetect (Alt+A) от основното меню.
Module (Alt+M) - Amiflash е изграден на модулен принцип и всеки поддържан чипсет (ID=0) или FlashROM чип (ID=1) се представя от отделен модул, който може да се изтрие или запази във файл. Възможно е да се използва и външен модул чрез параметъра /U[file] от командния ред. НО описанието на формата на модулите е поверително и напрактика не е възможно да се добавят собствени такива. (Ако имате познат, пишеш биоси AMI - свиркайте! :) )

Допълнителни функции

Освен изброените горе Amiflash поддържа и известен брой функции, достъпни само от командния ред.
/A[+] - Automatic - извършва флашването автоматично без външна намеса.Чипсетът и FlashROM-ът се идентифицират автоматично. Използването на "+" изкарва графичния интерфейс, в противен случай флашването се извършва изцяло от командния ред. Трябва да уточните името на новия биос като и всички настройки от командния ред, например [amiflash.exe newbios.bin /a /[key] /s oldbios.bin].
/T[n] - Tries[number] - може да се използва само в комбинация с /A и задава броя опити за флашване при неуспех. [n] може да заема стойности от 0 до 65535.
/Q - Quiet - тих режим на работа, т.е. няма да се изкарват никакви съобщения по време на флашването.
/X - ? - Задава режим на работа със забрана на автоматичната идентификация на типа FlashROM и логиката му. Да не се използва, освен ако сте наясно какво правите и можете ръчно да въведете правилните параметри.
/P - Password или PowerUser?- отваря "тайно" меню Security (Alt+E), в което могат да се извършват следните дейности:
- да се въведе парола за вход в това меню при следващото флашване
- да се махне паролата
- да се определи кои опции в главното меню да са активни при следващото флашване
- да се редактира съобщението в долната част на програмния прозорец ("For PCI system board only").
Очевидно това меню е предназначено за използване главно от производителите на дъни платки.

Практически указания

Ето една примерна (оптимална) конфигурация на настройките за извършване на флашването, която би трябвало да е подходяща за 99% от потребителите.(За тези, на които не им се четеше текста по-горе)
За начало приведете системата и настройките на биоса си в състоянието, описано за AwardBIOS. Направете си стартова дискета, като следвате инструкциите за Award BIOS в съответната част. Запишете на нея програмата за флашване Amiflash.exe (или някой от вариантите и) заедно с биос-файлът ви. Обикновенно програмата се предоставя заедно с биоса от производителя на дънната платка. Създайте .bat-файл като копирате долния текст в Notepad и го запазите примерно като Ami.bat


@echo.off

if exist oldbios.bin goto program 

amiflash.exe /Soldbios.bin

:program 

amiflash.exe newbios.bin /A+ /-B /-C /-D /E /-G /I /L /N /R /V


При първото стартиране на този .bat - файл старият биос ще бъде запазен като oldbios.bin, а FlashROM-ът ще се програмира с новия биос Newbios.bin, където трябва да напишете името на вашия файл. Не се притеснявайте, ако разширението не е .bin - то няма значение. При използване на този синтаксис не е необходима вашата намеса повреме на препрограмирането. При повторно стартиране няма да се презапише стария биос, целта е да не се изтрие - дано не ви потрябва.

Ако предпочитате работата в диалогов режим, стартирайте Amiflash със следния набор от параметри

amiflash.exe /-B /-C /-D /E /-G /I /L /N /R /V


И в двата случая използваните параметри са ясни - BootBlock-ът няма да се изтрие, Всички пароли ще се запазят, програмата ще провери дали биосът е подходящ за вашата дънна платка. След флашването CMOS - ще се постави на настройки по подразбиране и компютърът ще се рестартира сам.

Едно уточнение - в новите версии на програмата се ограничава използвания брой параметри до 4 според /?. Останалите функции присъстват, но са недокументирани. Въпреки това могат да бъдат използвани успешно.Освен това функцията "BIOS functions are called by ROM file" се маха, добавена е "Check Feature ID/Check BIOS ID".


Следва описание на параметрите за флашване на биоса с Amiflash в диалогов режим и от командния ред.

BootBlock Programming (/B) - за препрограмиране на Bootblock-а. Тъй като той се променя много рядко и информацията в него е жизнено важна за дъното ви, не се препоръчва препрограмиране, освен ако не е споменато изрично от производителя в новата версия на биоса. Ако изтриете bootblock-a и нещо се обърка, няма да е възможно възстановяването на биоса чрез софтуер. За това - [/-B].
NVRAM Programming (/N) - Non-Volatile RAM - това е РАM с независимо захранване (батерията на дъното), в която се пазят настройките от CMOS-а (ESCD).
Load CMOS defaults (/C) - за поставяне на настройките по подразбиране в биоса след флашването.
Clear passwords during loading CMOS defaults (/D) - маха паролите от биоса след флашването.
Re-boot after programming done (/R) - рестартира компютъра след флашването.
BIOS file checksum verify (/V) - проверка на контролната сума на биос-файла. Ако има грешка ще видите съобщението "The BIOS ROM file checksum is BAD".
BIOS file tag check (/I) - проверява дали биосът съответства на дънната платка, като търси тагове в биоса и DMI зоната и ги сравнява за да определи дъното и съответствието.
Clear CMOS after reprogramming done (/E) - изчиства данните от CMOS-а, за да не възникне проблем при рестартирането. Отговаря на джъмпера на дъното.
GPNV data area reserving (/G)? - работи само с платки, поддържащи GPNV (Green PC Non-Volatile Buffer), каквото и да е това 8) . В противен случай изкарва съобщение "The system BIOS has no GPNV support. This function will be disabled".
Disable USB (/L) - изключване на USB по време на препрограмирането, независимо от статуса му преди това. За всеки случай е добре да се използва.

Информацията е основно от xbitlabs.com и rom.by.
0

#8
Потребителят е неактивен   debug 

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За опити за съживяване на "умрели" дъна след несполучлив флаш или N-Force 2 - проблеми - правите дискета по описания вече начин, само нека bat- файлът за AwdFlash да е

@echo off 

awdflash.exe newbios.bin /sn /py /cc /cp /cd /r


След това рестартирате и се надявате :)
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#9
Потребителят е неактивен   karantiq 

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и от мен нещо.аз флашвам по следния начин:
правя си системна дискетка(под 98)
рестартирам ПС-то, махам ограниченията за предпазване на биос от запис на отделна дискета съм записал разархивираните програми които трябват за флаша.тъй като на дискети много вяра не може да се има след зареждане от стартуп дискета поставям другата дискета с нужните файлове и ги копирам в създадения виртуален дял.по този начин опасенията че може една дискета да те прецака отпадат.след това просто от стартирам нужния файл от виртуалния дял.добре е също като се флашне биоса да се и рестартне(чрез джъмпера на батерията обикновенно)
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#10
Потребителят е неактивен   morfeii 

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Цитат

Flashing BIOS FAQ


1. What is a (Flash) BIOS ?

Pronounced "bye-ose," BIOS is an acronym for basic input/output system. The BIOS is built-in software that determines what a computer can do without accessing programs from a disk. On PCs, the BIOS contains all the code required to control the keyboard, display screen, disk drives, serial communications, and a number of miscellaneous functions.

The BIOS is typically placed on a ROM chip that comes with the computer (it is often called a ROM BIOS). This ensures that the BIOS will always be available and will not be damaged by disk failures. It also makes it possible for a computer to boot itself.
Because RAM is faster than ROM, many computer manufacturers design systems so that the BIOS is copied from ROM to RAM each time the computer is booted. This is known as shadowing, and should be disabled in the BIOS setup before flashing.

Most modern PCs have a flash BIOS, which means that the BIOS has been recorded on a rewriteable memory chip, which can be updated if necessary.

The PC BIOS is standardized, so all PCs are alike at this level (although there are different BIOS versions). Additional DOS functions are usually added through software modules. This means you can upgrade to a newer version of DOS without changing the BIOS.

PC BIOSes that can handle Plug-and-Play (PnP) devices are known as PnP BIOSes, or PnP-aware BIOSes. These BIOSes are always implemented with flash memory rather than ROM.
2. How do you determine if your system has a Flash Bios chip ?
Take the cover of the computer and look inside. Peel the sticker of the BIOS chip (28 or 32-pin DIP IC with the BIOS brand sticker on it). (source: c't 2/97/110)
• Am29F010: AMD 5 volt flash ROM
• Am28F010, Am28F010A: AMD 12 volt flash ROM
• AT28C010, AT28MC010, AT29C010, AT29LC010, AT29MC010: Atmel 5 volt flash ROM
• CAT28F010V5, CAT28F010V5I: Catalyst 5 volt flash ROM
• CAT28F010, CAT28F010I: Catalyst 12 volt flash ROM
• 28F010: Fujitsu 12 volt flash ROM or ISSI 12 volt flash ROM
• HN58C1000: Hitachi 5 volt flash ROM
• HN28F101, HN29C010, HN29C010B, HN58C1001, HN58V1001: Hitachi 12 volt flash ROM
• A28F010, 28F001BX-B, 28F001BX-T, 28F010: Intel 12 volt flash ROM
• M5M28F101FP, M5M28F101P, M5M28F101RV, M5M28F101VP: Mitsubishi 12 volt flash ROM
• MX28F1000: MXIC 12 volt flash ROM
• MSM28F101: OKI 12 volt flash ROM
• KM29C010: Samsung 5 volt flash ROM
• DQ28C010, DYM28C010, DQM28C010A: SEEQ 5 volt flash ROM
• DQ47F010, DQ48F010: SEEQ 12 volt flash ROM
• M28F010, M28F1001: SGS-Thomson 12 volt flash ROM
• 28EE011, 29EE010: SST 5 volt flash ROM
• PH29EE010: SST ROM Chip - Flashable
• TMS29F010: Texas-Instr. 5 volt flash ROM
• TMS28F010: Texas-Instr. 12 volt flash ROM
• W29EE011: Winbond 5 volt flash ROM
• W27F010: Winbond 12 volt flash ROM
• X28C010, X28C010I, XM28C010, XM28C010I: XICOR 5 volt flash ROM
• 29LVxxx - 3V Flash memory (rare)
• 28Cxxx - EEPROM, similar to Flash memory
• 27Cxxx - With window. EPROM: read-only, requires programmer to write and UV to erase.
Anything without a Window that doesn't have a 28 or 29 as the preceding numbers of the part #, is most likely a standard ROM.
3. Do you really need a (Flash) BIOS upgrade ?
OS Support - It's possible that Windows 95 isn't configured 100% correctly on a computer with an outdated BIOS. To let Windows 95 fully support Plug 'n Play you also need a PnP-BIOS. This is a very important reason to update your BIOS.
Large HDD support - All harddisks that are sold today are more then 528 megabyte. To support these harddisks the BIOS must have LBA (Logical Block Addressing) support. When your BIOS doesn't support LBA and you want to use your new harddisk at full capacity you have to use software drivers that trick the BIOS. With some of these software drivers Windows 95 will load your HD in compatibility mode which means a performance loss.
A third important reason to upgrade your BIOS is to solve bugs. Other reasons are e.g. new settings in your BIOS: Booting from CD-ROM, Boot from SCSI before IDE harddisks,...
There is no guarantee a new BIOS will solve your problems, and flashing can be risky.
4. Where can I download Flash BIOSs ?
Well, start looking at my page. If your motherboard manufacturer isn't listed on the BIOS Upgrades page then there is big chance they don't have a web site, or are out of business. Post in our BBS and if it exists, someone will find it for you. (But do your own web search before you post, and let us know what you find out.)
If that fails, contact us and we'll add your description to the Wanted BIOS page. If you know of any Flash BIOSs not listed on my Flash BIOS page, please let me know.
If you found your Flash BIOS stored on this site, you should first check the Flash BIOS page from the motherboard manufacturer to see if there are any updates. (I can't check all the sites of motherboard manufacturers daily to see if there are any updates.)
5. What if you don't know the name of your motherboard ?
The part number of each Award & AMI BIOS usually contains information identifying the chipset it supports, and the manufacturer. This information appears at the bottom of your screen after power on, during memory count up.
Copy down your BIOS id string EXACTLY when it appears on your screen. Better yet, dump it to the printer (Print screen key). The PAUSE key should work at that point, allowing you to read the part number, the BIOS date, and the version.
Unfortunately, in some cases, the manufacturer removes that information. Then your only recourse is to contact the board manufacturer.
Check either the Award or AMI BIOS Numbers page and search for your BIOS number. Partial searches work best, ie: 2A5LDH09C.
If you can't find it, post a question in our BBS. Before you post, run CTBios (written by CT), and put the results in your post. Make sure the full BIOS id string is included. If you have an AMI BIOS you can also try the AMIBIOS Motherboard ID Utility (written by AMI)
If you have an Award BIOS, you can also email AWARD at award888@ms1.hinet.net or support@unicore.com and give them a) version, B) part number and c) release date.
6. How do you flash your BIOS ?
1. To flash your BIOS you'll need a) a flasher, and B) a data-file. The flasher programs the data-file into the BIOS chip.
2. Boot to the DOS prompt, either using a CLEAN boot disk or Safe Mode DOS Prompt.
3. Type the following at the DOS prompt, where xxx is the name of the BIOS file you downloaded:
awdflash xxx.bin (for Award BIOSs)
amiflash xxx.bin (for AMI BIOSs)
mrflash xxx.bin (for MRBIOSs)

Notes:
• Most flashers will ask you to save the current BIOS. Choose Yes, so that you can always flash back to the original version if you're having problems with the new one.
• Some manufacturers may use their own utilities to upgrade the BIOS (mostly non-clones)
• Disable the System BIOS Cacheable option in the BIOS before flashing.
• Do NOT flash under Windows or any OS other than plain DOS.
• By using the switch /? (eg. awdflash /?) the flasher will display all available switches.
7. What to do when the Award flasher says: Insufficient memory
1. In CMOS Chipset Features Setup, disable every form of caching and shadowing you can find, ie: Video Bios Cacheable. Save and exit.
2. Reboot and hit Ctrl+F5,when you see "Windows Starting" (This temporarily prevents Drvspace.bin from loading-making 108K more Memory available.)
3. Award 7.x flashers now have a switch /tiny . If you use that switch (eg awd7xx /tiny newbios.bin) the Award flasher will need less free memory.
8. Can something go wrong ?
Yes, if you use the wrong flash BIOS, or have a power outage, or have a defective chip, there is chance that your computer WILL NOT BOOT. We recommend not to flash unless absolutely necessary.
9. How can you recover a corrupt BIOS ?
Solution 1: Boot-block BIOS
Modern motherboards have a boot-block BIOS. This is small area of the BIOS that doesn't get overwritten when you flash a BIOS. The boot-block BIOS only has support for the floppy drive. If you have a PCI video card you won't see anything on the screen because the boot-block BIOS only supports an ISA videocard.
Award: The boot-block BIOS will execute an AUTOEXEC.BAT file on a bootable diskette. Copy an Award flasher & the correct BIOS *.bin file on the floppy and execute it automaticly by putting awdflash *.bin in the AUTOEXEC.BAT file.
AMI: The AMI boot-block BIOS will look for a AMIBOOT.ROM file on a diskette. Copy and rename the correct BIOS file on the floppy and power up the PC. The floppy doesn't need to be bootable. You will see the PC read the floppy, after about 4 minutes you will hear 4 beeps, this means the transfer is done. Reboot the PC and modify the CMOS for your configuration.
Solution 2: Get a new BIOS chip
1. Contact your motherboard manufacturer to see if they sell BIOS chips. Some motherboard manufacturers send them for free.
2. Contact a company that sells pre-flashed chips, like Unicore Software, FlashBIOS.ORG or BadFlash
Solution 3: Hot-swapping
Note: I'm not responsible for any damage this method may do to you or your computer !
1. Replace the corrupt chip by a working one. The best option is to take the working BIOS chip from a motherboard which has the same chipset although that's not absolutely necessary. It just has to give you a chance of booting into DOS. Before pulling the working BIOS chip out of it's original motherboard, set the System BIOS cacheable option in the BIOS to enabled.
2. After you have put the working BIOS in the motherboard with the corrupt BIOS boot the system to DOS (with a floppy or HD).
3. Now replace (while the computer is powered on) the working BIOS chip with the corrupt one.
4. Flash an appropriate BIOS to the corrupt BIOS and reboot.
Note: Use a flasher from MRBIOS. They are known to work best.
Solution 3: (for Intel motherboards)
1. Change Flash Recovery jumper to the recovery mode position (not all products have this feature)
2. Install the bootable upgrade diskette into drive A:
3. Reboot the system
4. Because of the small amount of code available in the non-erasable boot block area, no video is available to direct the procedure. The procedure can be monitored by listening to the speaker and looking at the floppy drive LED. When the system beeps and the floppy drive LED is lit, the system is copying the recovery code into the FLASH device. As soon as the drive LED goes off, the recovery is complete.
5. Turn the system off
6. Change the Flash Recovery jumper back to the default position
7. Leave the upgrade floppy in drive A: and turn the system on
8. Continue with the original upgrade
10. What do if my BIOS is buggy and their is no update available ?
Apply a bios that is not specifically written for your mother board. Try this AT YOUR OWN RISK.

I found this posting in a newsgroup:
I have just done some testing of various manufacturer's BIOS on my Triton chipset motherboard. This was an experiment to see if a motherboard can use the BIOS from a different manufacturer.
The answer: Most Yes, but somewhat No. For the most part, it works, but your mileage will vary. This WILL, however, allow you to upgrade to a newer BIOS that may even fix some (or many) bugs.

NOTICE: My motherboard never became totally dysfunctional with any other company's BIOS, but be aware that I may have just been lucky!

DO NOT ATTEMPT TO USE A DIFFERENT COMPANY'S BIOS UNLESS: 1) You have an EPROM programmer handy. 2) You have another flash capable motherboard handy and know how to do the "hot-flash" method. 3) You like living on the edge and are willing to risk killing your motherboard.

The experiment: I wanted to upgrade the BIOS on my Amptron PM7700B motherboard from a v4.50PG BIOS to a v4.51PG BIOS in the hopes of fixing a Power Management bug (monitor blanking out randomly, and HD falling asleep even while I'm typing). My config: Maxtor 1.6GB HD Pri/Master, Aztech 4x CD-ROM Sec/Slave, SB16, AMD 5k86-75 oc'd to 90MHz (older SSA-5 version).

I tried the following BIOS's: Award v4.51PG from ASUS for their 430FX motherboards, Award v4.50PG from FIC for their PT-2003 430FX board, Award v4.51PG from ECS for their TR5510 board, and Award v4.51PG for Shuttle's HOT-541 board.

NOTE: You often CANNOT flash another manufacturer's BIOS if they use a different flash program (ASUS is one such company that uses a different flash program than others). AWDFLASH v5.2 works fine to flash all BIOS except ASUS's. I discovered that MR-BIOS's 29C010.EXE (use the program suitable for your chip) will flash ANYTHING into the chip. You can find 29C010.EXE and 28F010.EXE on ftp://ftp.mrbios.com. Their shareware is gone, but those programs can be found inside a few of the .zip files found there that are >60k in length.

Results:

* ASUS BIOS worked fine, but only detected (and counted) 8MB when I really have 16MB. Win95 auto-detected many new devices, but promptly got rid of this one due to the memory detection.

*FIC 430FX BIOS, couldn't access floppy (system would freeze if I tried), but HD booted and worked just fine. Promptly got rid of this one.

*ECS TR5510 BIOS, this one works great, and is what I'm using now. It fixed the APM bug, and also fixed a bug where before, SHIFT-F5 would throw me into Safe Mode while booting Win95 while it's SUPPOSED to boot directly into DOS. ECS BIOS fixed it to where it works correctly, I am assuming this was caused by a slight incompatibility between Amptron's BIOS and the AMD 5k86 CPU (which Amptron tech support had already told me wasn't quite stable on their board). Also, the ECS BIOS benched considerably faster with the AMD 5k86 under WinTune96 (RAM access and HD access also increased a few MB/s).

*Shuttle HOT-541 BIOS, this fixed the same bugs the ECS BIOS did, and also ID'ed my AMD 5k86-75 (SSA/5) as an AMD K5-PR90. Although this was the newest BIOS (8/96), it didn't allow Win95 to detect my CD-ROM drive so I reverted back to the ECS BIOS.

In Conclusion, none of the 4 non-Amptron BIOS that I tried had any permanent and unrecoverable negative effect, and most worked about 90-100% (the ECS even fixed bugs that were in the original Amptron BIOS). Some IMPORTANT things to remember if you wish to try something like this: Use *ONLY* BIOS's from motherboards with the SAME chipset!!! Also, make sure the I/O chip from that motherboard is the same as yours, in my case, I only flashed BIOS from motherboards that used the UM8669 I/O chip. I don't know what might happen if you flash a BIOS designed to support a different type of I/O chip, your serial ports might not work... or worse! Lastly, you must make a copy of a KNOWN perfectly working BIOS and flash program on your hard drive, this is in case your floppy drive won't boot, but your hard drive still can.

Anyhow, these were my findings, and I am very pleased to have found that the ECS BIOS fixed every single bug my motherboard had. I also don't recommend doing this without some kind of backup plan. I own an FEPROM programmer so if a BIOS killed my motherboard, it wouldn't have been a problem to fix it. I never had to use it, but you may not get so lucky. Sorry for the lengthy message, but I thought someone might find this educational.
--
Shawn Lin - slin01@mail.orion.org


11. Why are there no Flash BIOS on the Award or AMI site ?
Award and AMI give m/b manufacturers a BIOS customized for each specific board and the chipset(s) controlling that board. Then the manufacturer, using tools from Award/AMI, makes final modifications to the BIOS before shipping the system or board. In other words, the manufacturer knows more about that system than they do and is better able to provide a Flash BIOS upgrade.

12. Where do you have to look for technical support (for your BIOS) ?
At the website of your motherboard manufacturer (if they have one). If you still have questions, you should email them.
13. What does PROM, EPROM, EPROM Burner stand for ?
PROM - (programmable read-only memory) is a memory chip on which data can be written only once. Once a program has been written onto a PROM, it remains there forever. Unlike main memory, PROMs retain their contents when the computer is turned off.
The difference between a PROM and a ROM (read-only memory) is that a PROM is manufactured as blank memory, whereas a ROM is programmed during the manufacturing process. To write data onto a PROM chip, you need a special device called a PROM programmer or PROM burner. The process of programming a PROM is sometimes called burning the PROM.
EPROM - (erasable programmable read-only memory) is a special type of PROM that can be erased by exposing it to ultraviolet light. Once it is erased, it can be reprogrammed. An EEPROM is similar to a PROM, but requires only electricity to be erased.
EEPROM - (electrically erasable programmable read-only memory). Pronounced e-e-prom, an EEPROM is a special type of PROM that can be erased by exposing it to an electrical charge. Like other types of PROM, EEPROM retains its contents even when the power is turned off. Also like other types of ROM, EEPROM is not as fast as RAM.
A special type of EEPROM, referred to as flash memory or flash EEPROM, can be rewritten while it is in the computer rather than requiring a special device called a PROM reader. This is what most of you will have.
This information comes from PCWebopedia.
14. What does "The program file's part number does not match with your system" mean?
The file name of Award BIOS binary files is usually derived from the BIOS serial number. Because one file name resemble another, a customer may inadvertently use the wrong binary file when updating the system BIOS with the Award flash utility.
To help avoiding this problem, Award have added a new feature to AWDFLASH.EXE, version 5.33 and above - a warning message that appears if the program detects a mismatch between the BIOS binary file and the system board.
If a mismatch is detected, the following message appears when the user responds YES to the program prompt to flash the BIOS:
The program file's part number does not match with your system
This warning message appears only if the binary file name you specified in the program differs from the existing file in your system.
If you receive this message, check carefully to ensure that you have the correct binary file for your system.
You can bypass checking the serial number by typing the following at the DOS command line:
Awdflash 2Axxxxxx.BIN /Py
The /Py switch immediately flashes the new binary file to the BIOS EPROM.


15.My BIOS/Operating System doesn't recognize my XXGB hard drive
Proper "large" IDE HDD support is twopiece:
- Detection
- Runtime support
The former is sort of easy, AWARD BIOS older than 6/1999 screw up with >32GB drives anyway.
The latter means that the BIOS must offer additional runtime services to access what's behind the 8 GB border (1024x63x255x512 bytes, to be exact). That's usually called "Int13 extensions", and by far not every BIOS that detects any drive size has these.
That's why you see 20 GB in BIOS and only 8 in your operating system.
Required reading:
• Getting beyond the ATA 8.4 GB limit
• Jan's PC Upgrade problems Page
You have three options in this case:
1. Get a BIOS upgrade. Might not help, especially in older systems.
2. Purchase an add-on EIDE controller card.
3. Use Drive Overlay software like EZBios or Ontrack. You can download this from the HDD manufacturer's home page.

16. How can you clear all of the BIOS settings back to their defaults with the DOS DEBUG command ?
Solution 1: for AMI and Award BIOSs:
C:DEBUG (at a clear DOS prompt, don't do this in DOS-box in Windows)
-O 70 17
-O 71 17
Q
Solution 2: for Phoenix BIOSs:
C:DEBUG (at a clear DOS prompt, don't do this in DOS-box in Windows)
-O 70 FF
-O 71 17
Q
17. How to hack the password protection ?

Do NOT repeat DO NOT ask us for any laptop password hacking info. We do NOT give this out, due to the high incidence of laptop theft. If you are locked out of your laptop, contact the manufacturer, or take it, along with proof of purchase, to your nearest authorized service center.

Solution 1: for Award BIOSs:
Try these : AWARD_SW, j262 , HLT, SER, SKY_FOX, BIOSTAR, ALFAROME, lkwpeter, j256, AWARD?SW, LKWPETER, Syxz, aLLy, 589589, 589721, awkward, CONCAT
In the past, Award has defined Award_SW as its default security password. However, this password is now widely known, due to Award's large customer base, so it has lost its original function of security protection.
To reduce the opportunity of security breaches, Award Software International Inc. has canceled this default value in BIOS code with a release date on or after December 19, 1996.
Since no defalt value is predefined for the password, Award OEM customers must use the Award MODBIN.EXE utility, version 4.50.75, to customize their own password prior to releasing products to end users

Solution 2: for AMI BIOSs:
Try these: AMI, BIOS, PASSWORD, HEWITT RAND, AMI?SW, AMI_SW, LKWPETER, A.M.I.

If you wish to attempt disabling the password yourself, you will need to erase CMOS. You should not do this unless you already have written down or printed out of all the BIOS Setup parameters, or if you are certain that restoring the Setup default values is sufficient for operating your system. Take these steps:
1. clear the CMOS (remove the CMOS battery until POST displays a "CMOS checksum bad" or a similar message);
2. re-install the CMOS battery;
3. run the BIOS Setup;
4. restore the correct BIOS Setup settings.
NOTE: it can take up to several days for the CMOS to go bad without a battery. This is caused by capacitance in the circuit. This charge can be safely discharged by using a 10k-ohm resistor, touched to the battery connectors for a few moments (while the battery is removed).
Dowload some BIOS password cracks
Download IBIOS here (works with AMI/AWARD)
18. What do the POST & Beep codes mean ?
• AMIBIOS
• Award BIOS
• Phoenix BIOS
• Phoenix ROM BIOS PLUS / PhoenixBIOS 1.xx POST/BEEP Codes
• Eric's Post Codes
19. How to solve the AMI BIOS Beep codes ?
For 1 beep, 2 beeps, or 3 beeps try reseating the memory first. If the error still occurs, replace the memory with known good chips.

For 4 beeps, 5 beeps, 7 beeps, or 10 beeps the system board must be sent in for repair.

For 6 beeps try reseating the keyboard controller chip. If the error still occurs, replace the keyboard chip. If the error persists, check parts of the system relating to the keyboard, e.g. try another keyboard, check to see if the system has a keyboard fuse.

8 beeps indicates a memory error on the video adapter. Replace the video card or the memory on the video card.

9 beeps indicates faulty BIOS chip(s). It is not likely that this error can be corrected by reseating the chips. Consult the motherboard supplier or an AMI product distributor for replacement part(s).

If no beeps are heard and no display is on the screen, The first thing to check is the power supply. Connect a LED to the POWER LED connection on the motherboard. If this LED lights and the drive(s) spin up then the power supply will usually be good.

Next, inspect the motherboard for loose components. A loose or missing CPU, BIOS chip, Crystal Oscillator, or Chipset chip will cause the motherboard not to function.
Next, eliminate the possibility of interference by a bad or improperly set up I/O card by removing all card except the video adapter. The system should at least power up and wait for a drive time-out. Insert the cards back into the system one at a time until the problem happens again. When the system does nothing, the problem will be with the last expansion card that was put in.

If the above suggestions fail to cause any change in the dysfunction of the system, the motherboard must be returned for repair.
20. How to insert NCR SCSI BIOS v3.07 or 4.03 into your MRBIOS ?
It's actually simple but varies for each version of mr bios. You need to download a program from Windows95.com called 'Hex Workshop' which allows you to edit files in Hexadecimal. The process involves cutting out the blank space at the beginning of the mr bios flash image and appending either the NCR flash image v3.07 or 4.03 and saving the file.
Notice the mr bios site describes the initial flash image as being 92k but when you download it its actually larger due to this extra blank space.
Cut out the appropriate blank space so the image is 92k, save. Then append the NCR v3.07 flash image by cutting and pasting and save. The file length should now be 108k (92k + 16k NCR v3.07 image). It is OK to append the larger 32k NCR v4.03 image if you like. The total file length will be 124k. This change of offset of the core bios will not hurt anything. As I am sure you know be VERY CAREFUL!
Thanks go out to William H. Lagarde for giving me this info !
21. What about the YEAR 2000 ?
Check out the following sites:
http://www.firmware....os/year2000.htm
http://www.y2klinks.com
http://www.y2k.com

22. Where can I download the Award and AMI Flashers ?
You can find them on my Bios Utilities page, or get them at your motherboard manufacturer's home page. It is best to use the version of the flasher they provide/suggest
23. How to flash an Intel AMI BIOS on an Intel OEM board ? (e.g. when you have BIOS 1.00.xx.CB0H and want to update to a 1.00.xx.CB0 BIOS)
I haven't tested this procedure, so use this information at your own risk!
The following illustrates how to go from a "1.00.xx.CB0H"-type BIOS to a regular "1.00.xx.CB0"-BIOS. The extra letter means that it's an Intel motherboard sold to an OEM (in this case Vobis = "H").
Everything said here *should* also be applicable for other Intel motherboards (that use AMI BIOS) and other OEMs too. (e.g. going from 1.00.xx.BC0R to 1.00.xx.BC0)
Background:
The "1.00.xx.CB0"-BIOS was a BIOS developed by AMI for Intel's "endeavour"- motherboard (also known as "Advanced-E/V"-MB).
I guess that VOBIS did slightly modify this BIOS and called the modified version "1.00.xx.CB0H". It's likely that the letter "H" stands for "HIGHSCREEN" which is labeled on all of their PC's.
This brought me to the conclusion, that I could use the regular AMI-version since my motherboard WAS an "endeavour"-board.

You can download the "1.00.xx.CB0"-BIOS-versions from Intel. There are the versions 02, 03, 04, 05 and 06 available.
If you try to use any of these versions, you get an error saying that "the data are corrupt or you are using a wrong BIOS". The problem is, that the BIOS-ID string of the Intel-Files is only 1.00.02.CB0 but your actual BIOS is 1.00.02.CB0H, so the upgrade-program denies the execution of the upgrade.

I did the following:
1. I downloaded the version 1.00.02.CB0 (equivalent to my actual version) and version 1.00.06.CB0 (the latest version) from the Intel-page.
2. Following the instructions on the page "http://developer.intel.com/design/motherbd/genbios.htm" I created 2 boot-disks, one for each version.
3. On the 1.00.02.CB0-Disk there are (among others) the files "1002cb0_.bio" and "1002cb0_.bi1".
I opened both in a text editor (WordPad, comes with Windows95) and replaced the string "CB0 " (the SPACE behind CB0 is important) with "CB0H".
Each file should have 1 occurrence of this string .
4. Booting my computer with this modified disk, the "upgrade" from 02 to 02 was accepted. Surprising: the BIOS-ID was now 1.00.02.CB0 and not 1.00.02.CB0H
5. I booted again with the (unmodified) 1.00.06.CB0-disk. This upgrade was accepted too, and now my BIOS-Version was 1.00.06.CB0.
Up to now (3 weeks) everything works fine and my new 4.3GB-harddisk is recognized too(which was the reason for this trouble...).

Please note:
1. The Intel-upgrade-program allows saving your current BIOS to disk. YOU SHOULD DO THAT. Create a boot disk with your BIOS, then you have the opportunity to fall back to your "old" version, if something goes wrong. Even if the PC didn't boot: the endeavour-boards have a BIOS-recovery jumper. (See Intel's WWW-Page).
2. It's likely that you can upgrade to Version 06 DIRECTLY by modifying the version-06-disk, but I haven't tried that. (Update: One visitor told me that this indeed possible and works!)
3. There's a risk that VOBIS did not only put their company-name in the BIOS but did also other (functional) changes.

(Thanks to Veikko Summa for sending me this info)
24. How to flash an Intel Phoenix BIOS on an Intel OEM board ?
Try this process at your own risk.
1. Download the newest BIOS from the Intel site for your motherboard.
2. Put the downloaded Intel's flash BIOS on a bootable diskette. (see the text files in the zip-file on how to do it)
3. Go into the BIOS and enable the option 'Check for User Flash ROMS' (it's in SETUP)
4. Power down the computer
5. Set the BIOS Jumper on the motherboard to RECOVERY
6. Insert the bootable diskette you made in step 2 that contains the new BIOS
7. Turn on the computer
8. It'll now go through the recovery procedure and then load the new BIOS from the diskette.
9. After that the recovery procedure is completed, power down
10. Set the BIOS Jumper back to the normal mode
11. Power up
You should now have the new BIOS installed!
(Thanks to Anne Munson for sending me this info!)
25. How can you change the EPA logo that is displayed at boot-up on Award BIOS based motherboards ?
Try this process at your own risk.
First of all you need a BIOS *.BIN file that you'll first edit and flash afterwards. Please make sure that BIOS file you're going to edit is the correct one for your motherboard.
Download BMP2EPA. It will convert a BMP to an EPA file. The BMP file must be 104x121, 1bpp.
Once you have the EPA file you'll need to find CBROM or CBROM6 to insert the EPA file into the *.BIN file. The syntax is : cbrom *.BIN /EPA savedEPA.epa (where *.BIN is the filename of the BIOS file, savedEPA.epa the filename of the EPA file.). CBROM should be used on Award V4.51 releases, CBROM6 should be used on Award V6.0 releases)
Now all you have to do is flash your bios with the edited BIOS file.
Note: Not all Award BIOSs support this (especially older BIOSs (486,old 586)
26. How do you get rid of IRQ Routing Table errors in Win9x ?
If you have a VIA chipset based motherboard install the latest VIA IRQ Routing Patch
If you still have problems then try disabling 'OnChip USB' in the BIOS. If this helps then contact your motherboard manufacturer to get a new BIOS without this bug. (eg. Shuttle HOT591P motherboards had this problem, but a BIOS update fixed it).
27. My BIOS is dead, and I can't get my floppy drive to work to do a boot-block flash.
Plug an ISA Multi-IO card, connect your floppy drive there, and flash your BIOS again, this time with one that really is for your motherboard.
28. Why is there no option to enable USB in my BIOS setup?
From Peter - The first round of system chipsets that was advertized as having USB was made to an early pre-1.0 USB specification, and shipped in the hope that this attempt would be close enough to the 1.0 spec that the chips would be useful.

After that it turned out that the specification had to be changed bigtime to get it working, and that the chipsets would have to be changed as well. That's why there are mainboards around that seem to have everything you need for USB, yet don't show any sign of actually doing it.

BIOS developers then were asked to hide these pre-1.0 USB controllers, both from BIOS setup and, where possible on chipset programming level (as with Intel's PIIX3 south bridge chip), from the PCI bus as well.

The big four chipset makers Intel, ALi, VIA and SiS all had pre-1.0 chips out. I don't have any detail for ALi and SiS. Intel's pre-spec PIIX3 is recognized by being rev. 0 (as read through PCI revision ID register) and marked "SU052" production S-spec. The rev. 1 "SU093" is the one with working USB. VIA has working USB in the 82C586B south bridge, and it seems the implementation in the original 82C586 and 82C586A was pre-spec, although I don't have confirmation on that (only the fact that Ocean Rhino 12 and PC-Chips M537 boards were advertized as "with working USB" once they sported the 586B).

On an interesting side note, recently one Intel spokesman claimed that only around 100 SU052 PIIX3 had been made. From the number of those I alone encountered here in Germany, I don't quite buy that.
29. How do I over-clock my CPU?
We don't know. Well, ok, maybe we do. But that's not what this site is about. For over-clocking info, see AnandTech or Tom's Hardware. Do not post in the BBS about over-clocking...we'll have to shoot you.
30. Why won't my VX motherboard recognize xxMB DIMMS/SIMMS?
The Intel VX doesn't have enough Memory Address lines to drive the higher integration DRAM technology, be it EDO or SDRAM. 16-MBit is the highest density supported, while the parts on a 64-MByte EDO SIMM are 64-MBit (eight chips)
Do the math - count the SDRAM chips on your DIMM (the large ones) [if they're ECC DIMMs, round down to the nearest power of two], and compute:
((total capacity in MByte)*8)/(number of chips)
The result is the density in MBit of the SDRAM components used.
Examples:
32-MByte DIMM with 16 chips: 32*8/16=16, usable with Intel VX.
128-MByte ECC DIMM with 18 chips - round down to 16, 128*8/16 = 64, not usable on VX.
As current production is 64- or 128-MBit densities, the bottom line of all this is that SDRAM support in Intel VX is useless with today's DIMMs.
Also, in order to have your board recognize 32Mb per DIMM, you'll need the 16-chip versions. If you have the 8-chip version, only 8Mb (your case) will be recognized.
Remember, it's not a memory problem; it's a chipset limitation. And no, this can't be fixed by a BIOS update.
31. My hard drive is XXGB. Why is only XXGB reported?
Drive makers "define" their gigabyte as a billion of bytes, 10^9 or 1,000,000,000. Megabytes are 10^6 or 1,000,000 bytes here.
Real binary gigabytes are 2^30 bytes or 1,073,741,824 bytes. Megabytes are 2^20 or 1,048,576 bytes.
To make things worse, software can display either version. FDISK displays binary megabytes 2^20, so does the HPT's BIOS. Your system BIOS seems to sell 10^6 bytes for a HDD megabyte.
Doing the math, you'll see that's where your MB have "vanished", exactly the difference between decimal and "real" binary megabytes, rounding errors aside.
Windows 98's Drive Properties window displays capacity in bytes, plus decimal and binary megabytes, so have a look there to have it all side by side.
PS: Blame points to Quantum. They started doing that with the LP105 series. Even back then, people called in and complained "where are my five megabytes" since each and every software back then displayed capacity as 100.3 (binary) megabytes.
Quantum's drive specification sheet then was added a footnote (in 1pt Flyspeck Sans Serif font, of course) that said "Quantum defines 1 Megabyte as 1,000,000 bytes" ...

32. What is the BIOS actually doing when I turn on my computer?
When you turn on your computer, several events occur automatically:
1. The CPU "wakes up" (has power) and reads the x86 code in the BIOS chip.
2. The code in the BIOS chip runs a series of tests, called the POST for Power On Self Test, to make sure the system devices are working correctly. In general, the BIOS:
o Initializes system hardware and chipset registers
o Initializes power management
o Tests RAM (Random Access Memory)
o Enables the keyboard
o Tests serial and parallel ports
o Initializes floppy disk drives and hard disk drive controllers
o Displays system summary information
3. During POST, the BIOS compares the system configuration data obtained from POST with the system information stored on a CMOS - Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor - memory chip located on the motherboard. (This CMOS chip, which is updated whenever new system components are added, contains the latest information about system components.)
4. After the POST tasks are completed, the BIOS looks for the boot program responsible for loading the operating system. Usually, the BIOS looks on the floppy disk drive A: followed by drive C:.
5. After being loaded into memory, the boot program then loads the system configuration information (contained in the registry in a Windows® environment) and device drivers.
6. Finally, the operating system is loaded, and, if this is a Windows® environment, the programs in the Start Up folder are executed.
33. How do I identify a motherboard with a Phoenix BIOS?
You don't. From the Phoenix FAQ:
If you cannot find the maker's name on or in the computer, in the copyright notice displayed during POST, or in the owner's manual, then you are out of luck. Phoenix does not make computer systems. There is no reliable way for Phoenix to determine the original manufacturer. The numbers listed on the BIOS sticker on the motherboard do not identify the BIOS version or the manufacturer of the system.
As you can see, Phoenix doesn't care much for end-users.

34. I flashed my VIA chipset based motherboard with the correct BIOS upgrade and it died. Why ?
Before flashing you have to disable Byte Merge in the Award BIOS. Not doing this will kill your motherboard BIOS. This behavior has been seen on the ASUS P3V4X and K7V motherboards when using ASUS own aflash.(It may not be limited to ASUS alone.)

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Потребителят е неактивен   morfeii 

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Цитат

How can I flash a video card BIOS?


ATI Cards:
• Download the BIOS file (ATI Bios collection here) and put it on a bootable floppy/usb stick/CD. Check bootdisk.com on how to get a boot disk.
• Download an ATI flashing utility and put it on this disk too.

• Reboot your computer with the boot disk and run atiflash -s 0 oldbios.bin to save your old bios just in case you might need it at a later time.
• Now run atiflash -p 0 newbios.bin Replace newbios.bin with the filename of the downloaded bios file.
• If you are trying to flash a bios for a different card then you will get a security warning that the bios does not match your card. If you are absolutely sure that the bios is compatible you can use the -f parameter to force flashing. For example atiflash -f -p 0 bios.bin
• Reboot your computer
• Done


NVIDIA Cards:
• Download the BIOS file and put it on a boot disk. Check bootdisk.com on how to get a boot disk.
• Download nvflash (v4.41) and put it on this disk too.
• Reboot your computer with the start diskette and run nvflash -b oldbios.bin to save your old bios just in case you might need it at a later time.
• Now run nvflash -f newbios.bin Replace newbios.bin with the filename of the downloaded bios file.

• If you are trying to flash a bios for a different card then you will get a security warning that the bios does not match your card. If you are absolutely sure that the bios is compatible you can use the -p and -u parameters to force flashing. For example nvflash -p -u -f bios.bin
• Reboot your computer
• Done

How to recover from a bad BIOS flash:
Use an old PCI card to boot your system while your AGP card with the corrupted BIOS is still installed. Your system should initialize the PCI card first. If this does not happen, remove the AGP card and turn the computer on with only the PCI card, go to your BIOS Setup and change the "Init Display First" option to "PCI". Now reinstall the AGP card. Your system should boot normally with the PCI card as primary display adapter. You can now re-flash the corrupted BIOS or use another one. Make sure you are flashing the right card by using the -i (ati) or -a (nvidia) command line option.

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Потребителят е неактивен   morfeii 

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[quote]How to setup your BIOS

BIOS Setup Program
Despite its many functions and the important role it plays in running your PC, the system BIOS is most "famous" for the BIOS setup program, the little built-in utility that lets you set the many functions that control how your computer works. In fact, some people even call this program "the BIOS" or "the CMOS" which of course is inaccurate ("CMOS" refers to the technology used to create the tiny memory where the BIOS settings are stored).
This section discusses the BIOS setup program, while the settings contained within it are discussed here.

Setup Program Manual
Your motherboard manual should come with instructions on how to use the setup program; the BIOS program and its settings typically take up the second half of the entire manual. Unfortunately, most of these manuals are pitifully inadequate. They will usually provide a list of each setting with one or two sentences to describe them, and that's about it. Better motherboard companies will do better than this.
Warning: Be sure to check the manual closely and compare it against the settings you actually see on the screen. If you see mismatches, I would recommend you try to get an updated manual from the various sources on the Internet. It is, unfortunately, all too common to find incorrect or outdated BIOS manuals shipped with motherboards. This is usually worse with cheaper motherboards, but even good ones tend to come with bizarrely cryptic or inaccurate documentation.

Setup Program Manual
Your motherboard manual should come with instructions on how to use the setup program; the BIOS program and its settings typically take up the second half of the entire manual. Unfortunately, most of these manuals are pitifully inadequate. They will usually provide a list of each setting with one or two sentences to describe them, and that's about it. Better motherboard companies will do better than this.
Warning: Be sure to check the manual closely and compare it against the settings you actually see on the screen. If you see mismatches, I would recommend you try to get an updated manual from the various sources on the Internet. It is, unfortunately, all too common to find incorrect or outdated BIOS manuals shipped with motherboards. This is usually worse with cheaper motherboards, but even good ones tend to come with bizarrely cryptic or inaccurate documentation.

Entering the BIOS Setup Program
The BIOS setup programs can normally be entered only during the boot process, either a cold boot or a warm boot (after hitting {Ctrl-Alt-Del}). Some setup programs will let you go into setup program using a key combination at any time.
At least one thing is finally becoming somewhat standard: the use of the {Del} key to enter the setup program during boot. This is true of AMI and Award BIOSes, and some others as well. Older BIOSes can use any of a myriad of strange key combinations, including {Esc}, {F1}, {F2}, {F10}, {Ctrl-Esc}, {Alt-Esc}, {Ctrl-Alt-Esc}, {Ctrl-Alt-Enter}, {Ins} or others.
Typical Key Controls
Most setup programs show on the screen itself the keys to use to select and change various options; some instead use a very limited help screen, normally accessed with the F1 key. The following keys are pretty much universal:
• {Enter} is normally used to select a menu or sub-area.
• The arrow keys are used to move between settings (in rare cases, they are used to change the selected setting).
• {Page Up} and {Page Down} or {+} and {-} are the two most common pairs of keys for modifying the current setting.
• {Tab} can also sometimes be used to move between sections or settings.
• {Esc} is normally used to move up the menu hierarchy one level, and in some BIOSes it is used to quit out of the setup program as well.
The newer AMI BIOSes are graphical; you put a standard serial mouse on the first serial port and a faux Windows screen pops up with the settings in little "program groups". If you don't have a mouse or it isn't working, you can access this program using keys as well. (I tried it with a PS/2-style mouse once and it didn't work, strange that they wouldn't support this... could be that I did something wrong.)
Note: Some BIOSes have the ability to bypass some of the extended settings during boot, by holding down the {Ins} key during the boot process. This can be useful in the event that you make such incorrect settings that the BIOS cannot even boot (which can happen, though it takes talent. :^) ) Check your motherboard manual to see if your machine can do this.

BIOS Settings
This section describes most of the BIOS settings that you will find in a typical Pentium-class or higher PC. Some BIOS settings are quite universal, while others can be found on only the systems made with one type of BIOS or made by one manufacturer. This section lists the most common settings that are used in modern PCs, with full explanations as to what they are and how to set them. This includes the more common advanced settings, but does not attempt a "shotgun" coverage of every setting I've ever seen on a machine. Some are very atypical and usually not something you need to worry about. The less common a setting is, the more often it is the case that you really will want to leave it on its default setting anyway. Not always, but usually.
By the nature of how I designed this section, it should cover 95%+ of the settings in your BIOS that you will ever want to change. If you find a setting in your BIOS that isn't covered here, you may find it in the BIOS Survival Guide, which has a more complete list of the settings found on various types of PCs.
For each setting I describe the most common options and what they mean. In addition, I indicate which options are usually the default. I also describe what the implications are of using the different settings, and provide general recommendations on how to configure most of the parameters. The settings themselves are organized based on the names of the settings groups you will find in a typical BIOS setup program.
Tip: It is a good idea to "back up" (record on paper) all of your BIOS settings once your PC is running and stable, and especially before you make any changes to them.

Tip: Reference this procedure for specific instructions on configuring the most important BIOS settings to safe values, to maximize the chances of booting a new or problematic system.

Note: Every setup program is slightly different from every other one. Even if two BIOSes are both on Pentium motherboards and are made by Award, they may have different settings. The commands as shown here might be different on your PC, or they might be in a different place. Use care when modifying these parameters, and refer to your motherboard manual if it is accurate.

Warning: The highly prudent will have a backup of their hard disk before fiddling with their BIOS settings.

Warning: Changing advanced parameters can lead to system instability and data loss. It is recommended that only users who really understand what they are doing change these settings. Proceed at your own risk.

Warning: If your BIOS contains a "hard disk utility" that includes items like setting interleave ratios, low level formatting, or "media analysis", do not use it on an IDE/ATA or SCSI drive (which includes virtually every PC hard drive made in at least the last 5 years). These old utilities are designed for the MFM and RLL drives from the 1980s and can in theory damage a modern drive, for which they are unnecessary. I wish they'd just take them out of the setup program entirely (and on many newer PCs they have).
BIOS Settings - Standard Settings
This settings group contains basic parameters that you will normally need to set (or adjust) for your system to work properly. Most of these are present on virtually every PC
Date
The system date. Make sure that you enter it in the correct format; normally this is mm/dd/yy in North America, but may vary elsewhere.
Newer versions of Windows will let you change the date within the built-in "Date/Time Properties" feature, and the BIOS date will be updated automatically by the system
Time
The system time. Most systems require this to be entered using a 24-hour clock (1:00 pm = 13:00, etc.)
Newer versions of Windows will let you change the time within the built-in "Date/Time Properties" feature, and the BIOS time will be updated automatically by the system
Daylight Savings
If your BIOS has this setting, enabling it will forward the time by one hour on the first Sunday in April, and drop it back by one hour on the last Sunday in October. The default value is usually "Enabled".
This setting is not present on most PCs; however, some operating systems, such as Windows 95, will do this for you automatically if you enable the daylight savings time option in their control settings.
Note: The date when daylight savings time "kicks in" can change in some cases; for example, a few years ago the spring date changed from the last Sunday in April to the first. If this happens again your BIOS will change the time on the wrong date so you will want to disable this unless a flash BIOS upgrade is made available to you that compensates.
IDE Primary Master
This is where the hard disk parameters are entered for the primary master IDE/ATA device, the first drive in a modern IDE system. See the hard disk section for details on what these terms mean and how these devices are set up. The various settings for the drive are discussed in detail in the IDE Setup / Autodetection section. The default setting for this on a system with IDE autodetection, is usually "Auto".
Note: Some older systems only have places for two drives' parameters to be entered; often in this case they just call them "Drive C" and "Drive D".
IDE Primary Slave
This is where the hard disk parameters are entered for the primary slave IDE device, the second drive in a modern IDE system. See the hard disk section for details on what these terms mean and how these devices are set up. The various settings for the drive are discussed in detail in the IDE Setup / Autodetection section. The default setting for this on a system with IDE autodetection, is usually "Auto".
IDE Secondary Master
This is where the hard disk parameters are entered for the secondary master IDE device, normally the third drive in a modern IDE system (though it can be the second as well, if the primary slave device is not used). See the hard disk section for details on what these terms mean and how these devices are set up. The various settings for the drive are discussed in detail in the IDE Setup / Autodetection section. The default setting for this on a system with IDE autodetection, is usually "Auto".
IDE Secondary Slave
This is where the hard disk parameters are entered for the secondary slave IDE device, the fourth drive in a modern IDE system. See the hard disk section for details on what these terms mean and how these devices are set up. The various settings for the drive are discussed in detail in the IDE Setup / Autodetection section. The default setting for this on a system with IDE autodetection, is usually "Auto".
Floppy Drive A
The type of the first floppy drive. The choices normally are:
• 1.44 MB: A normal 3.5" drive.
• 1.2 MB: A normal 5.25" drive.
• 2.88 MB: A high-density 3.5" drive, found on some newer systems.
• 720 KB: A low-density 3.5" drive.
• 360 KB: A low-density 5.25" drive.
• None: No floppy drive present in the "floppy A" position. May read "not installed" or similar.
This setting usually defaults to a 1.44 MB 3.5" drive, the most common type currently in use.
Floppy Drive B
The type of the second floppy drive. See common choices under "Floppy Drive A" above.
The type of the second floppy drive. The choices normally are:
• 1.44 MB: A normal 3.5" drive.
• 1.2 MB: A normal 5.25" drive.
• 2.88 MB: A high-density 3.5" drive, found on some newer systems.
• 720 KB: A low-density 3.5" drive.
• 360 KB: A low-density 5.25" drive.
• None: No floppy drive present in the "floppy A" position. May read "not installed" or similar.
This setting usually defaults to "none" or "not installed" since most PCs don't have a second floppy drive.

Video Display Type
This is the standard type of the display you are using; almost always this should be set to either "VGA" or "VGA/EGA" for a modern PC, if you are using any sort of VGA or SVGA card (which is basically every PC made in the nineties.) This is also usually the default value.
Halt On
Some PCs give you the ability to tell the BIOS specifically which types of errors will halt the computer during the power-on self test section of the boot process. Using this, you can tell the PC to ignore certain types of errors; common settings for this parameter are:
• All Errors: The boot process will halt on all errors. You will be prompted for action in the event of recoverable errors. This is the normally the default setting, and is also the recommended one.
• No Errors: The POST will not stop of any type of error. Not recommended except for very special cases.
• All But Keyboard: The boot process will stop for any error except a keyboard error. This can be useful for setting up a machine without a keyboard, for example for a file or print server.
• All But Diskette/Floppy: All errors will halt the system except diskette errors. In my opinion, if your floppy drive has recurring and known problems, it is most likely best just to replace (or disconnect) the drive rather than using this.
Warning: Telling the system not to halt for any error types is generally not wise. You may end up missing a problem with your system that you will want to know about.
BIOS Settings - Advanced Features
This section usually contains more advanced features for controlling the behavior of your system. There are some settings here that you will want to adjust to ensure maximum performance from your system. There may also be some features you will need to enable or disable if your system is exhibiting problem behavior.
Virus Protection / Virus Warning
This setting has one of the most misleading names of all of the parameters in the BIOS. The system BIOS really has no way at all to tell which programs are viruses, and which are "wanted" programs. If enabled, what this setting does is to trap any and all writes to the hard disk's master boot record, and display a message to the screen each time asking if you are willing to allow the write. Since one common type of virus is the boot sector infector, this can indeed prevent the spread of these viruses.
However, this setting will also cause the BIOS to display its warning message for any legitimate access to the boot sector. So if you use any utilities that modify partitions, or even if you reformat your hard disk, this message will pop up rather unexpectedly. You can of course just "authorize" the BIOS, telling it to proceed with the write, but this can grow rather annoying if it happens often. It can also be quite confusing to someone who doesn't understand what this strange BIOS message means.
Some people prefer the safety of having this enabled, others find it annoying and turn it off. In fact, most people don't regularly run utilities that modify the boot sector. If you turn this setting off, you can probably find a similar feature, more elegantly implemented, in a memory-resident anti-virus program.
Internal Cache
This setting enables or disables the internal cache on your processor. This is also known as the L1 or level 1 cache. For 486 or later processors this should be enabled; turning off the level one cache will lead to a major performance hit. Earlier processors don't have internal cache, and enabling this setting can possibly lead to problems. You should disable this setting only for testing purposes if you are trying to find a problem, or if you suspect a bad processor chip.
On some BIOSes you may see three choices: "Disabled", "Write Through" and "Write Back". These refer to the cache's write policy. The write back cache policy will produce the best performance.
External Cache
This setting enables or disables the external cache on your processor, also known as the L2 or level 2 cache. Most 486 or later motherboards include this cache memory. Like the internal cache setting, this should be enabled at all times unless you are disabling it for troubleshooting purposes. Disabling the external cache will cause your system to slow down dramatically, but you can use it if you are having system crashes and suspect a problem with the cache chips.
On some BIOSes you may see three choices: "Disabled", "Write Through" and "Write Back". These refer to the cache's write policy. The write back cache policy will produce the best performance.
Note: There are some motherboards out on the market, particular PCI-based 486 motherboards, that have fake level 2 cache on the board. One way to test for this is to disable the external cache and see if there is a performance decrease in the system. If there isn't, you never had any level 2 cache to begin with. In addition, some systems will report (in the System Configuration Summary) the presence of enabled level 2 cache even when it is disabled. This is a BIOS that has been "doctored" and is a sign of fake cache on the motherboard as well. Amazing the trouble people will go to to cheat someone out of a few bucks, isn't it?

Quick Power On Self Test / Quick Boot
Enabling this setting will cause the BIOS power-on self test routine to skip some of its tests during bootup. One of the key things this setting usually does when enabled is cause the POST to skip checking all of extended memory for errors.
Most people enable this setting to speed up the boot process, but you should realize that you do increase the chance of the POST missing an error if you use this. Fortunately (or unfortunately) the POST memory test is virtually useless to detect transient memory errors (as opposed to hard errors that you would discover the first time you powered up the machine with the new memory in it), so once your system is running and stable, you can in most cases enable this setting safely. It's still safest to leave it disabled, which is what I recommend unless you have truly monstrous amounts of RAM. After all, how often do you boot the system during normal use?
Memory Test Tick Sound
When enabled, the POST memory test will make a tick sound as it counts up your system memory. Most people leave this enabled, others turn it off because they find the sound annoying. Many newer systems skip this option and turn the sound off entirely.
When building a system, it is recommended that you enable this, as the sound will act as a confirmation that your speaker is working, and that the POST is progressing normally. This is important during the first few boots of a system, and also if you are having video problems.
Boot Sequence
This setting controls the order that the BIOS uses to look for a boot device from which to load the operating system during the DOS boot process. Older machines do not have this setting; they look at the floppy drive first (A:) and then the hard drive (C:). Most systems will at least let you choose between "A:, C:" (the default) and "C:, A:". Newer systems will allow you to boot from the CD-ROM as well; in this case there will be six different combinations listed. The default will normally be "A:, C:, CD-ROM".
Note: Booting off the second floppy disk, B:, has not been an option on any PC I've ever seen.

Some BIOSes are getting even more advanced in terms of the boot sequence options they will allow. Some systems will now allow you to boot off a different IDE hard disk than the primary master (C:), or let you boot from a SCSI device instead of IDE even when both are used in the same system (normally the IDE device gets preference).
Changing the boot sequence to seek from the hard disk drive first instead of the floppy disk drive has some advantages, and also some disadvantages. There are two main advantages. First, if the floppy disk isn't bootable, you virtually eliminate the chance of a boot sector virus spreading to your hard disk from a floppy. Second, you have a measure of security and reliability since when the floppy disk is bootable, anyone can write their own system files and boot the PC with their floppy, bypassing the standard startup files on the hard disk.
The disadvantages of not having the floppy bootable all relate to convenience. First, if you ever do have a virus on your PC then you will normally need to boot from a clean floppy disk to disinfect your hard disk; you will have to go back into the BIOS and change the boot sequence, disinfect, and then change it back. Second, there are some software programs that require their own boot disks (though they are becoming quite rare). Third, if your hard disk ever fails, you won't have any way to boot the PC. Some viruses manifest themselves by making the hard disk disappear. Finally, if you are installing a new operating system, or building a PC, you really need to be able to boot from the floppy disk.
Note: See also the "Floppy Drive Seek" setting
S.M.A.R.T. for Hard Disks
Some BIOSes have a specific BIOS setting to enable monitoring of hard disks that support the SMART (Self-Monitoring And Reporting Technology) feature, which can allow the hard disk to report, under some circumstances, impending failures of the hard disk. . The normal default for this setting is "Disabled".
Power On Delay / Boot Delay
If you have the combination of a PC that boots up quickly, and a hard disk that takes a relatively long time to spin up, your BIOS may start trying to boot the operating system before the hard disk is read. A giveaway to this problem is the computer that won't boot when first powered on but will boot seconds later if the reset button is pressed.
If your BIOS has this option, you can specify a time in seconds to delay the boot process. This is normally disabled, and should be unless you are experiencing this problem
Boot Up Numlock Status
This setting, when enabled, automatically turns on your NumLock key when the system is booted. Most systems default this to enabled. This item is a matter of personal taste.
Tip: There is also a DOS command (NUMLOCK) that can be put in the CONFIG.SYS file to enable the NumLock key. This will override the BIOS setting at startup if used.

Swap Floppy Drives
A useful feature for those machines that use two floppy drives, when enabled this swaps the A: and B: drives. This enables you to change the bootable floppy without having to open the case and switch the cable. See here for details on multiple floppy drives and the floppy cable.
Warning: Windows NT 4.0 does not properly support the floppy drive swap BIOS option; do not enable it if using NT. I have read reports of people getting stuck in the middle of NT installs because NT changed the floppy disk letters in the middle of the installation.
Floppy Drive Seek
Causes the BIOS to search for floppy disk drives at boot time. When enabled, the BIOS will activate the floppy disk drives during the boot process: the drive activity light will come on and the head will move back and forth once. First A: will be done and then B: if it exists. When disabled, this seek will not be done. Older PCs always did this seek; on newer machines it can be disabled to speed up the boot process.
Note: This setting will not affect the boot sequence, and vice-versa; if the boot sequence starts with A: the system will still try to boot from the floppy disk even if this is disabled, and if the boot sequence starts with C: the system will still look to C: even if floppy disk seek is enabled.
Boot Up System Speed
There aren't as many PCs that have this setting any more. Usually the options are "High" and "Low", where "High" is the normal system speed, and is the default setting. "Low" is for debugging only. Overall, this is a software equivalent of the good old "Turbo Switch" and on a modern system should be used the same way: that is, not at all.
Keyboard Installed
Some BIOSes let you specify explicitly if there is a keyboard in the system. The default is of course "Installed" (or "Yes", etc.) If you are using a PC without a keyboard (for example, for a file server or secured network PC) this will instruct the BIOS to skip the keyboard test during the POST. Also see the "Halt On" setting for a different way to accomplish this task.
Typematic Delay
This setting controls the automatic repeat capability of your keyboard. Usually specified in milliseconds, this controls how long a key must be held down before it begins automatically repeating. Typical settings are usually somewhere between 200 and 1000 milliseconds. Use what feels comfortable. See also "Typematic Rate".
Note: Some higher-end keyboards have the equivalent function built-in.

Warning: Setting this too low can cause the keyboard to repeat keys during normal typing, which can appear to be "keyboard bounce" and imply a hardware problem with the keyboard to the casual user.

Typematic Rate
This setting controls the repeat rate for the keyboard when the typematic feature is activated. It is usually expressed in characters per second. Use what feels comfortable, but don't go too high or you may feed the characters faster than the system can deal with them, which can cause beeping or even system lockups.
Tip: Some higher-end keyboards have the ability to set this parameter built-in; sometimes it is called "Key Repeat" or "Repeat Rate".

Fast A20 / A20 Gate Option
In order to fully understand this setting you need to understand what the A20 line (21st address line) is and what its significance is. In a nutshell, the A20 line is used to control access to the high memory area, the first 64 KB or so of extended memory. This line is normally controlled by the keyboard controller. To improve performance, newer systems have this control function built into the chipset as well.
To have the chipset control the A20 line and improve performance, enable this option. This setting is normally enabled by default. There is rarely any reason to disable this.
Video BIOS Shadow
This parameter, when enabled, turns on BIOS ROM shadowing for the block of memory normally used for standard VGA video ROM code, which is C0000 to C7FFF (32K). See here for a full description of what ROM shadowing does; in short, it speeds up your system by copying the contents of your video BIOS code from the slow ROM in which it resides into faster RAM.
The default for this setting depends on the particular system a great deal.. Enabling it will increase performance. Disable it if it causes system problems, particularly those related to the video subsystem.
Note: On some systems the video BIOS shadow setting is named for the address range the video BIOS occupies, C0000-C7FFFh, instead of being specifically called "Video BIOS Shadow".
System BIOS Shadow
When enabled, this parameter turns on BIOS ROM shadowing for the block of memory that contains your system BIOS. This is normally F0000 to FFFFF (64K). See here for a full description of what ROM shadowing does; in short, it speeds up your system by copying the contents of your system BIOS code from the slow ROM in which it resides into faster RAM.
This setting normally defaults to "Enabled". Since the system BIOS code is used so extensively, shadowing it can cause a great deal of system performance improvement.
C8000-CBFFF Shadow, CC000-CFFFF Shadow, etc.
Most BIOSes have several settings for shadowing each of the 16K blocks of RAM from C8000h through DFFFFh. These settings show up as something like "C8000-CBFFF Shadow", "CC000-CFFFF Shadow", etc., up to "DC000-DFFFF Shadow". Some systems have settings for ROM shadowing in 32K blocks instead of 16K, so you will see "C8000-CFFFF" instead of "C8000-CBFFF" and "CC000-CFFFF". (Some systems leave off the last digit in their notation, calling the blocks "C800-CBFF", etc. It's the same thing.)
When enabled, the setting selected turns on adapter ROM shadowing for that 16K block of memory. See here for a full description of what ROM shadowing does; in short, it speeds up your system by copying the contents of any BIOS code found in adapters using this memory space, from the slow ROM in which it resides into faster RAM.
The areas of memory from C8000 to DFFFFh are normally used by expansion cards such as network adapters. Turning on shadowing would speed these adapters up in the same way that shadowing the system BIOS speeds up the system BIOS code. However, things are much more tricky here, because some adapters use RAM as well as ROM, and map this RAM into this address space as well. If they do, and you enable shadowing, the adapter will malfunction because shadowing write-protects the RAM it uses (since it thinks it is emulating a ROM only, which cannot be rewritten). This can cause spurious results when using these cards, and can be very difficult to diagnose. In addition, normally unused areas of memory in this region are used as UMBs for loading drivers via the EMM386 driver, and enabling shadowing will cause this to malfunction.
For this reason, the default for shadowing these adapter ROM areas is normally "Disabled" and I recommend that it be left that way in most cases. If you know all the details on the card whose ROM you are trying to shadow, enabling this can in theory increase performance, but it is not going to be anything very substantial in most cases. Incidentally, on most IDE/ATA systems, the block from C8000 to CBFFFh is reserved by the IDE hard disk BIOS.
BIOS Settings - Advanced Chipset Features
This section of the BIOS setup program provides settings to "tweak" the chipset control parameters. Most of these settings are associated with fine-tuning control over the system cache, memory, and I/O buses, to optimize performance.
Warning: This section contains many settings that have the potential to screw up your system. :^) If after reading these descriptions you are not sure what a setting does, it is usually best to leave it at its default setting. For most people, using some form of the automatic configuration setting is highly recommended.
Chipset Special Features / Global Features
Some chipsets have this "generic" setting that, when enabled, turns on some of the special performance-enhancing features of the chipset. This should normally be enabled unless you experience lockups or other system problems.
I have thus far only encountered this setting on motherboards that use Intel's 430HX "Triton II" chipset.

Cache Timing
This setting determines the speed that the chipset will use for reading data from the external (level 2) cache. This normally appears as something like x-y-y-y. In this case the parameter refers to the number of clock cycles to do a 32-byte burst read from the external cache line. Each entry in the cache of a modern PC is 256 bits wide; data is read from the cache using four consecutive 64-bit reads. The first read is normally slower than the others; this is the "x" above, and the next three reads are the "y"s. An example would be "3-1-1-1", which means it takes a total of six clock cycles to read from the cache. More information on cache timing can be found here.
In general, the lower these numbers, the faster your system will be. How low you can drop them depends on your system, how fast your memory is, what clock speed your memory bus runs at, etc. If your BIOS supports an "Auto" setting for this parameter, using it is normally wisest, although it may not produce the highest performance results. You can try more aggressive settings (lower numbers) but be prepared to back off if you experience system problems, and don't go below the rating for your cache type.
Level 2 Cacheable DRAM Size / Cache Over 64 MB of DRAM
This setting controls how much of the system memory is "covered" by the level 2 cache. Using uncached memory on your system can cause it to slow down dramatically. You should always ensure that this value is set at least as high as the total amount of RAM in your system. However, for best performance, do not set it any higher than it needs to be.
Many motherboards using the 430FX, 430VX and 430TX chipsets will not have this option; it is most common on 430HX motherboards to select between 64 MB and 512 MB cacheability. You should in this case set it to 64 MB unless you are using more than 64 MB.
Note: This setting will not be present on Pentium Pro motherboards, since the Pentium Pro uses an integrated level 2 cache.

Level 2 Cache Size
Some systems have a specific setting you must change to indicate how much level 2 cache you have on your board. Most newer boards do not have this setting and instead the hardware automatically detects how much level 2 cache you have. If you have this setting in your setup program, make sure it is correct.
Note: This setting will not be present on Pentium Pro or Pentium II motherboards, since these chips use integrated level 2 cache, not cache on the motherboard.

System BIOS Cacheable
On most systems, you can shadow your system BIOS ROM. Shadowing increases performance by copying the BIOS code from ROM to much faster system RAM. Enabling this setting will allow the system to cache this RAM as well, further increasing performance.
Normally you will want to enable this unless you are having a problem with your system and turning it off fixes it. If you have system BIOS shadowing disabled, this setting will be ignored.

Video BIOS Cacheable
On most systems, you can shadow your system BIOS ROM. Shadowing increases performance by copying the video BIOS code from video adapter's ROM to much faster system RAM. Enabling this setting will allow the system to cache this RAM as well, further increasing performance.
Normally you will want to enable this unless you are having a problem with your system and turning it off fixes it. If you have video BIOS shadowing disabled, this setting will be ignored.
DRAM Parity Checking
When enabled, turns on parity checking for the system RAM. This should be enabled if you are using parity checking (or ECC), and disabled otherwise. The default is normally "Disabled" since (unfortunately) most modern systems don't use parity memory. I recommend the use of parity memory; see here for details on what parity memory is, and see here for a discussion of the merits of parity memory versus non-parity memory.
Warning: If you turn on parity checking on a system that does not have parity memory in it, the system will halt with a parity error as soon as it tries to boot up. If you turn off parity checking on a system that does have parity memory, the system will run just fine, but you will have no parity checking protection active.

DRAM Parity / ECC Mode
On a system that supports both parity and ECC error detection / correction modes--most newer systems support either both or neither--selects which mode is activated. ECC stands for "error correcting code" or "error correction code" and is a more advanced error detection and correction protocol than straight parity.
The default for this setting is normally "Parity"; it is ignored or disabled if "DRAM Parity Checking" is disabled.
Single Bit Error Report
If you are enabling ECC on your system, the hardware is capable of detecting and correcting single-bit errors on the fly. It is very useful to be able to know when this has happened, because if it happens often then this is a signal that you have a hardware or software problem in your PC. Enabling this option will cause the system to tell you when it corrects a single-bit error when ECC is running. The default is usually "Disabled". I recommend enabling this if you are running with ECC enabled.
DRAM Speed / DRAM Timing / DRAM Auto Configuration
There are a number of settings that control the timing of your system memory. For a full discussion on system memory timing, look here. Most setup programs now come with some sort of "automatic" setting that will determine what these parameters are for you. This is a "parent" setting of sorts that can be used to control the other individual timing settings on the screen. These parent settings normally come in one of two flavors:
• Dynamic Automatic Timing Setting: Some BIOSes have a fully automatic setting. When you put the DRAM Timing setting on "Auto", the chipset will detect what type of memory and cache you have at boot time and dynamically set all the timings for you automatically based on what it finds. This is the simplest way to ensure basically good performance from your system using any type of memory that it supports.
• Fixed Timing Based on Memory Speed: Other BIOSes, instead of having an "Auto" setting, let you choose from a selection of common memory speeds (or types) and then modify the individual timing settings based on your selection. Here, you may find settings like "70 ns", "60 ns", "EDO" and "Manual". "Manual" turns off the automated settings so you can tweak them yourself.
When you use the "Auto" setting (either fully automatic or by selecting a memory speed) the BIOS will normally "lock" the individual settings that are controlled by this one, to reflect the fact that they are being set automatically by the BIOS. To unlock the individual settings so you can change them, you normally must turn off the "Auto" setting, or select "Manual". The default in most BIOSes is to enable automatic timing settings.
Warning: In a system that dynamically sets timing based on the detected speed of your memory, you must take care when using memory of different speeds. You should generally put the slower memory in the first bank, often called Bank 0. Otherwise, the system may set the timing too fast for the slower chips.

DRAM R/W Leadoff Timing
This parameter controls how many clock cycles are required for the first access to memory during a four-read "burst". In modern PCs, reads from the system memory are done in sets of four, because the level 2 cache used in the PC (which is filled by information from the main memory) is 256 bits wide (four sets of 64 bits). The timing, in clock cycles, to perform this quadruple read is normally stated as "x-y-y-y". The first read is slower because the address for the read must be supplied to the memory; the next three are faster because they are read consecutively from the first location (no need to supply an address). Memory system timing is discussed in much more detail here.
Using the x-y-y-y notation, the Leadoff Timing setting refers to the "x" value, the number of clock cycles for the first read. On most BIOSes, this parameter is absolute, and refers to the actual number of clock cycles used for the first access. On others, this setting is the number of additional cycles required for the first access. For example, let's suppose the optimal burst timing for your system is 5-2-2-2. This means the first read takes 5 clock cycles, and the next three take 2 each. In most BIOSes, Leadoff Timing would here be set to 5. In some BIOSes, you would have a parameter called "Leadoff Wait States" or "Additional Leadoff Cycles", and you would put here 3 (the number of additional cycles required for the first read.)
The lower this setting, the faster your system will work. How low you can set this depends on your memory bus speed and the speed and type of memory you are using. In general, the faster your memory bus runs the more cycles it will take to access the memory unless the memory is also made faster. Putting this setting too low will cause memory errors; some of these can appear intermittently and be very difficult to diagnose. Using automatic timing to set this parameter is usually recommended.
By default most BIOSes enable automatic timing settings so this parameter would be "locked out" and not changeable; if you enable manual timing settings this setting will usually default to the slowest possible setting at first, for compatibility reasons.
Note: This setting controls the timing for both reads and writes. Some systems could have two different settings instead, one for read leadoff timing and the other for write leadoff timing.

Note: This setting is normally controlled by the DRAM Timing or Auto Configuration mode, and if automatic settings are enabled you may not be able to change this.

DRAM Read Timing / DRAM Burst Read Timing / DRAM Read Wait States
This parameter controls how many clock cycles are required for the burst reads from memory during a four-read "burst". In most modern PCs, reads from the system memory are done in sets of four, because the level 2 cache used in the PC (which is filled by information from the main memory) is 256 bits wide (four sets of 64 bits). The timing, in clock cycles, to perform this quadruple read is normally stated as "x-y-y-y". The first read is slower because the address for the read must be supplied to the memory; the next three are faster because they are read consecutively from the addresses immediately following the first location (no need to supply an address). Memory system timing is discussed in much more detail here.
Using the x-y-y-y notation, the Read Timing or Burst Read Timing setting refers to the "y-y-y" value, the number of clock cycles for the 2nd, 3rd and 4th reads of the four-read cycle. This setting will most often have options like "x-2-2-2", "x-3-3-3" and "x-4-4-4", although in some BIOSes the single number is used instead ("2", "3", "4".) Some BIOSes, especially on older machines, instead refer to read "wait states", which is essentially the same thing, except that it is one less than the number referred to above. A wait state is an extra cycle inserted for the processor to wait for the system memory. In the x-y-y-y notation, the "y" is the total number of cycles for each memory access. "x-1-1-1" is the best you can do, since it always takes at least one cycle. Zero wait states is the best you can do. So "x-3-3-3" is equivalent to 2 wait states.
Some chipsets will have a double value for this setting, with one used for EDO DRAM and another used for FPM DRAM. The system automatically detects which is being used; this is a sort of "semi-automatic" setting. In this case you may see options that look something like "x-2-2-2 / x-3-3-3" or "x-3-3-3 / x-4-4-4-4". The first timing number is used when EDO is detected and the second when FPM is detected.
Your system will operate fastest when this setting is as low as possible. How low you can set this depends on your memory bus speed and the speed and type of memory you are using. In general, the faster your memory bus runs the more cycles it will take to access the memory unless the memory is also made faster. Putting this setting too low will cause memory errors; some of these can appear intermittently and be very difficult to diagnose. Using automatic timing to set this parameter is usually recommended.
By default most BIOSes enable automatic timing settings so this parameter would be "locked out" and not changeable; if you enable manual timing settings this setting will usually default to the slowest possible setting at first, for compatibility reasons.
Note: This setting is normally controlled by the DRAM Timing or Auto Configuration mode, and if automatic settings are enabled you may not be able to change this.

Note: On some BIOSes this setting is combined with DRAM Write Timing / DRAM Write Burst Timing. In this case the same timing is used for both reads and writes.

DRAM Write Timing / DRAM Burst Write Timing / DRAM Write Wait States
This parameter controls how many clock cycles are required for the burst writes to memory during a four-read "burst". In most modern PCs, writes to the system memory are done in sets of four, because the level 2 cache used in the PC (which is filled by information from the main memory) is 256 bits wide (four sets of 64 bits). The timing, in clock cycles, to perform this quadruple write is normally stated as "x-y-y-y". The first write is slower because the address for the write must be supplied to the memory; the next three are faster because they are written consecutively to the addresses immediately following the first location (no need to supply an address). Memory system timing is discussed in much more detail here.
Using the x-y-y-y notation, the Write Timing or Burst Write Timing setting refers to the "y-y-y" value, the number of clock cycles for the 2nd, 3rd and 4th writes of the four-write cycle. This setting will most often have options like "x-2-2-2", "x-3-3-3" and "x-4-4-4", although in some BIOSes the single number is used instead ("2", "3", "4".) Some BIOSes, especially on older machines, instead refer to write "wait states", which is essentially the same thing, except that it is one less than the number referred to above. A wait state is an extra cycle inserted for the processor to wait for the system memory. In the x-y-y-y notation, the "y" is the total number of cycles. "x-1-1-1" is the best you can do, since it always takes at least one cycle. Zero wait states is the best you can do. So "x-3-3-3" is equivalent to 2 wait states.
Note: Systems that have a double value for read burst timing (one for EDO memory and one for FPM) will still have just a single value for write burst timing. This is because EDO is only faster than FPM memory when reading.

Your system will operate fastest when this setting is as low as possible. How low you can set this depends on your memory bus speed and the speed and type of memory you are using. In general, the faster your memory bus runs the more cycles it will take to access the memory unless the memory is also made faster. Putting this setting too low will cause memory errors; some of these can appear intermittently and be very difficult to diagnose. Using automatic timing to set this parameter is usually recommended. By default most BIOSes enable automatic timing settings so this parameter would be "locked out" and not changeable; if you enable manual timing settings this setting will usually default to the slowest possible setting at first, for compatibility reasons.
Note: This setting is normally controlled by the DRAM Timing or Auto Configuration mode, and if automatic settings are enabled you may not be able to change this.

Note: On some BIOSes this setting is combined with DRAM Read Timing / DRAM Read Burst Timing. In this case the same timing is used for both reads and writes.

DRAM Speculative Leadoff
This is a performance enhancement available with some chipsets to speed up the (relatively slow) first access to system memory. In short, the memory controller "cheats" by starting the initial read request before the address for the read has been completely resolved. This can result in a performance increase. For best efficiency you will normally enable this. If doing so causes instability then you should disable it.
Note: This setting is normally controlled by the DRAM Timing or Auto Configuration mode, and if automatic settings are enabled you may not be able to change this.

Turn-Around Insertion
When enabled, inserts an extra clock cycle (wait state) between consecutive DRAM read cycles (i.e., consecutive 4-read bursts). Normally the system can perform back-to-back burst reads without this extra delay, and the default for this setting is "Disabled".
Note: This setting is normally controlled by the DRAM Timing or Auto Configuration mode, and if automatic settings are enabled you may not be able to change this.
Memory Hole
Some (unusual) expansion cards require access to particular memory addresses in order to function properly. This parameter lets you set aside the appropriate area of memory for these cards. The typical memory areas that can be set aside are "512-640KB" (the upper 128K of conventional memory) and "15-16MB".
This setting should be disabled unless you have a card that you know requires this setting. The default is normally "Disabled".

ISA (or AT Bus) Clock Speed / Divisor
This setting controls the speed of the ISA bus, in one of two ways. The less common way is for the setting to allow a direct setting of the ISA clock speed; this would include options of "6 MHz", "8 MHz", etc. The most common way is for the ISA clock speed to be set as a fraction of the PCI clock speed. The settings in this case will usually look something like "PCICLK/3", "PCICLK/4", "PCICLK/6", etc.
The setting to choose is the one that puts the ISA clock speed as close as possible to 8.33 MHz, which is the accepted standard maximum clock speed for the bus. Anything higher than this is considered overclocking. 8.33 MHz means that the correct option for a 33 MHz or 30 MHz PCI machine would be "PCICLK/4", while for a 25 MHz PCI machine it would be "PCICLK/3".
On some BIOSes there is an "Auto" setting as well that will pick the right fraction depending on the PCI bus speed it detects, but this is somewhat less common in my experience than other automatic settings elsewhere in the BIOS.
8-Bit I/O Recovery Time
This setting allows you to insert additional clock cycles after an 8-bit ISA I/O request. These are sometimes needed to slow down the processor after completing activity on the ISA bus, which runs much slower than the PCI bus. The default setting for this is usually 1 cycle. This can normally be increased to 5 or higher, or reduced to 0 (disabled). Normally you will want to keep this at its default setting.
16-Bit I/O Recovery Time
This setting allows you to insert additional clock cycles after a 16-bit ISA I/O request. These are sometimes needed to slow down the processor after completing activity on the ISA bus, which runs much slower than the PCI bus. The default setting for this is usually 1 cycle. This can normally be increased to 5 or higher, or reduced to 0 (disabled). Normally you will want to keep this at its default setting.
Peer Concurrency
This setting, when enabled, allows multiple PCI devices to be active at the same time. The default for this setting is "Enabled" and you will normally want to leave it on the default.
BIOS Settings - PCI / PnP Configuration
The settings in this section deal specifically with the PCI bus and Plug and Play (PnP) settings. PCs that do not have a PCI bus will of course not have this section at all; older buses such as the VLB did not have the features that this section of settings controls. The PCI bus for the most part takes care of itself, but the settings in this section can be used when particular behavior by the bus or expansion cards needs to be addressed.
Warning: This section contains many advanced settings that in the vast majority of cases you do not need to change. For most users, using some form of the provided automatic configuration setting is highly recommended.

Plug and Play Aware OS
This setting is shown on only some BIOSes. If present, enabling this tells the BIOS that you are using an operating system that supports the Plug and Play specification (such as Windows 95). When enabled, the BIOS will look for and initialize any Plug and Play cards in the system. Enable the setting if using Windows 95 or another Plug and Play compatible OS. The default is normally "Disabled".
Note: Some BIOSes will perform the initialization of Plug and Play cards automatically regardless of the operating system being used, and will thus not have this setting. Some will work fine with Plug and Play regardless of how this option is set. However, on some systems that have this setting, Plug and Play may not function properly if the setting is disabled.

PCI IDE Bus Master
Some BIOSes have an explicit setting to enable bus mastering of PCI IDE hard disk drives. If this setting is present in your BIOS and you are using PCI IDE bus mastering you should set this to "Enabled". Otherwise it should be left on the default, which is "Disabled".
Automatic Resource Allocation
There are several settings in the PCI / PnP Configuration section of the BIOS program that deal with assigning interrupt resources. This includes both regular IRQs and the internal PCI interrupt resources. For most applications there is no need to manually select or deal with these resources; in this case the default setting of "Auto" should be selected, to enable automatic resource allocation. Not all BIOSes have this setting.
When you use the "Auto" setting the BIOS will normally "lock" the "PCI IRQ and DMA Settings" (below) to reflect the fact that they are being set automatically by the BIOS. To unlock the individual settings so you can change them, you must turn off the "Auto" setting.

PCI IRQ and DMA Settings / IRQ <n> Assigned To / DMA <n> Assigned To
When automatic resource allocation is not used, the BIOS allows you to specifically designate which system interrupts (IRQs) and direct memory access channels (DMAs) you want it to be able to use for setting up Plug and Play devices. For each IRQ or DMA, except ones reserved by the system, you can designate either "PCI/PnP" or "ISA/Legacy". When a resource is assigned to "ISA/Legacy" it is declared "off limits" to the BIOS.
The IRQs that you can normally set here are IRQs 3, 4, 5, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12, 14 and 15. The DMA channels are 0, 1, 3, 5, 6 and 7. (The others are reserved by system devices.) The default on most systems for each of these settings is "PCI/PnP". If your system does not have automatic resource allocation (which is preferred) then it is usually best to leave these settings on "PCI/PnP" unless you are having a problem with Plug and Play. For example, if PnP keeps taking a resource for a PnP card that you need for an ISA card, you might want to set that resource to "ISA/Legacy" here to reserve it.
Note: If automatic resource allocation is enabled, these options will normally either be locked to prevent change, or even cleared from the screen altogether, since the BIOS will control them automatically.

1st / 2nd / 3rd / 4th Available PCI Interrupt
The PCI bus uses its own internal interrupts, usually numbered #1 to #4 or #A to #D. Some PCI cards need to be able to use one of the regular system IRQs (interrupt request lines) to communicate with the processor. This setting "maps" the PCI interrupts to regular system IRQs by telling the BIOS which regular interrupt line to use for PCI cards that need one. The usual choices for this are IRQ9, IRQ10, IRQ11 and IRQ12.
Note: If automatic resource allocation is enabled, these options will normally either be locked to prevent change, or even cleared from the screen altogether, since the BIOS will control them automatically.

PCI VGA Palette Snoop
The VGA "palette" is the set of colors that are in use by the video card when it is in 256-color mode. Since there are thousands of colors and only 256 can be used in that mode, a palette containing the current colors is used. Some special VGA cards, high-end hardware MPEG decoders etc. need to be able to look at the video card's VGA palette to determine what colors are currently in use. Enabling this feature turns on this palette "snoop".
This option is only very rarely needed. It should be left at "Disabled" unless a video device specifically requires the setting enabled upon installation.
BIOS Settings - Power Management
This section contains the various settings that you can use to control your system's automatic power management settings. The pros and cons of using it are in this section on system care.
Note: In many ways, automatic power management is still "not ready for prime time", at least in my experience. Enabling power management can cause problems in your system because many software programs aren't prepared to properly deal with having the processor power down or the hard disks turn off, etc. You can certainly use power management, but be prepared to disable some of the settings if you have problems with them. I strongly recommend disabling all power management features when initially assembling a new system or performing upgrades or new software installations. If you do not, you will have a hard time figuring out what is causing any problems you might experience.


Global Power Management Setting
This is a setting that, if present, globally enables or disables power management. When set to "Disabled", the other settings in this section will typically be either locked out (so they cannot be changed) or else they will simply be ignored.
Video Power Down Mode
If present, this setting controls the method used to put the monitor into low-power mode. The typical options for this setting are:
• DPMS: Select this option if your monitor supports the DPMS standard for monitor power management. This is the preferred and usual default setting; most modern monitors do support DPMS.
• V/H Sync+Blank: Selecting this option causes the video card to shut down the vertical and horizontal sync signals to the monitor, as well as sending blank data to the monitor.
• Blank Screen: This option causes the monitor to be blanked only.
Video Power Down Timeout
This setting controls how long the system must be idle for the video to be powered down. It is specified in minutes, or set to "Disabled". How long you set this for depends on your personal taste and how you use your system. Note that a colorful "screen saver" really doesn't save any power at all over regular use of the monitor--the monitor is still on and displaying information either way.
Hard Disk Power Down Timeout
This setting controls how long a hard disk must be left idle before it spins down. The default is "Disabled". In a system with more than one hard disk, an idle timer is normally maintained individually for each. The choice of setting here depends a lot on how you use your system, as well as your personal opinion on the question of whether or not hard disks are better off running continuously or spinning down when not in use. See here for a discussion on this issue.
Doze Mode Timeout
This setting defines the number of minutes before the system enters "doze mode", the first level of system inactivity shutdown. The exact definition depends on the system, but in general this mode means that the processor slows down to a minimal activity level while other parts of the system keep running as normal. The default for this setting is usually "Disabled".
Standby Mode Timeout
This setting defines the number of minutes before the system enters "standby mode", the intermediate level of system inactivity shutdown. The exact definition depends on the system, but in general this mode means that the processor slows down to an even lower activity level than doze mode, and the video and hard disk drives are powered down. The default option is "Disabled".

Suspend Mode Timeout
This setting defines the number of minutes before the system enters "suspend mode", the deepest level of system inactivity shutdown. The exact definition depends on the system, but in general this mode means that all system devices are shutdown (except for any that the BIOS is specifically told to keep running) and the processor is shut down to a trickle mode. The default option is "Disabled".
IRQ Wake-Up Events and Activity Monitors
When the system enters a power-down mode, it will look for activity to tell it when to wake back up. Normally you wake the system back up either by pressing a key or moving the mouse. However, you may want the system to wake up in response to other events. For example, you might want the system to wake up when activity on the modem is detected, if your PC answers incoming faxes. Some BIOSes give you the ability to specify whether or not activity on an IRQ will wake up the system.
The BIOS monitors the system for "activity" to determine when to enable power management. You can tell the system what it should consider activity and what it should not, in other words, what sorts of events on the PC should reset the idle counter for power management. For example, in almost every case a movement of the mouse or a keypress could be considered activity. However, if you have a sensitive mouse that can move slightly in response to vibration, you might want to set the BIOS so that movement on the mouse will not reset the power management countdown timers.
There will normally be a separate setting for each IRQ. For each one, the options will typically be:
• Wake Up: Activity on this IRQ will wake up the system when in a power-down mode.
• Monitor: Activity on this IRQ will reset the system idle countdown timers.
• Both: Activity on this IRQ will both wake up the system when powered down and reset the idle timers when powered up.
• Neither: Activity on this IRQ will neither wake the system nor reset idle timers.
The default for these depends on the system. Some BIOSes use similar controls with different names, or may separate the wake up event controls from the monitoring controls. If you are using power management you will want to tailor these based on what interrupts (devices) are in use on your system. Look here for information on what the typical IRQ allocations are on a PC.
Tip: For a system with a PS/2 style mouse, the mouse will be on IRQ 12. For a system with a serial mouse, the mouse will be on whatever IRQ is assigned to the COM port the modem is using. This is usually COM1, which uses IRQ 4.

Note: IRQ1, which is generated by the keyboard, is not usually listed here as it always causes a wake-up from power management, and cannot normally be disabled.


BIOS Settings - Integrated Peripherals
This section discusses settings that control your system's integrated peripherals. These settings are used to enable or disable integrated peripheral support, and set the various resources they use. If in addition to the standard integrated peripherals (serial and parallel ports, floppy and disk drives, etc.) you have integrated video, sound or other devices, you may find controls for them in this section.
Integrated Floppy Disk Controller
This setting enables or disables the integrated floppy disk controller (FDC). The default for this is "Enabled". If for some reason you are using a plug-in floppy disk controller card, you will want to disable the integrated controller.
Integrated IDE Controllers
This setting enables or disables the integrated primary and secondary IDE/ATA controllers. If you are using an add-in IDE controller card (which there is normally no need to do), or if you are not using IDE devices at all (for example, if you use SCSI devices), you can disable the built-in controller here.
On some BIOSes a single setting controls both the primary and secondary channels; the options in this case are "Disabled", "Primary", "Secondary" and "Both". Other BIOSes have two separate "Enabled"/"Disabled" settings, one for the primary channel and one for the secondary channel.
The default on most systems is to enable both IDE channels. This is usually an acceptable setting for most PCs, but some systems can exhibit strange behavior if the secondary IDE channel is enabled but there are no drives on it; for example, Windows 95 may try to set up a drive controller device on the secondary channel and then get confused when nothing is on it. It is therefore prudent to disable the secondary IDE channel unless you are using it. This will also free up the IRQ used by the secondary channel (IRQ15) for use with other devices, if you need it. See this section in the Optimization Guide for ideas about optimizing IDE channel setup.
Integrated Serial Port 1 / Serial Port 2
This setting lets you specify the resources for the first and second serial ports on the motherboard. The exact name used for the various options varies (some call them "COM1", "COM2", etc. while others just list the I/O address and IRQ options). For each serial port setting you will typically find these:
• 3F8/IRQ4 (COM1): Sets the serial port to the I/O address and IRQ normally used by COM1. This is usually the default for the first serial port.
• 2F8/IRQ3 (COM2): Sets the serial port to the I/O address and IRQ normally used by COM2. This is usually the default for the second serial port.
• 3E8/IRQ4 (COM3): Sets the serial port to the I/O address and IRQ normally used by COM3.
• 2E8/IRQ3 (COM4): Sets the serial port to the I/O address and IRQ normally used by COM4.
• (Other options): Some systems now let you select other IRQs to assign to the onboard ports, to use if you are trying to avoid a resource conflict.
• Disabled: Disables the serial port.
Normally you will set the first serial port to the resource settings for COM1, and the second to COM2. If you are using an internal modem and you want it to be set up by your system as COM2, the easiest way to do this without generating any conflicts is to disable the second serial port here, to prevent interference.
Integrated Parallel Port
This setting lets you specify the resources for the integrated parallel port. On most systems you are allowed to choose one of the typical resource settings allocated to parallel ports, or to disable the port:
• 378/IRQ7 (LPT1): Sets the parallel port to the I/O address and IRQ normally used by LPT1. This is usually the default.
• 278/IRQ5 (
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#13
Потребителят е неактивен   lordofdeath 

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не знам дали тук е мястото ,но все пак
има ли смисъл да си модвам картата с друг биос
и ако има какъв ще е ефекта
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#14
Потребителят е неактивен   kaspy 

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Браво Debug :)

Ето и един много здрав сайт за всичко, свързано с биосите http://www.wimsbios.com/
С него се знаем от години :)
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#15
Потребителят е неактивен   debug 

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Тъй като получих запитвания за някой от описаните програми и мястото, откъдето могат да се намерят, ги качих на data.bg за улеснение на потребителите.
Стартова дискета, изготвена по описания от мен начин. Файлът представлява изпълнителен image, изготвен с WinImage. Необходимо е да поставите празна дискета и да го стартирате.
AwdFlash 824F - zip-архив на програмата AwdFlash.
AmiFlash - zip-архив на програмата AmiFlash, свален от American Megatrends
Flash848 - zip-архив на програмата AmiFlash във варианта на Gigabyte
Ecflash - zip-архив на програмата EcFlash.
UniFlash 1.36 - zip-архив на програмата UniFlash.
Последните две не са изпробвани от мен и не мога да кажа доколко и как функционират.
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#16
Потребителят е неактивен   eyescream 

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За флашване на БИОС-а на видеото ако направите същото което направихте за това за дъното ще е мноо яко, щот вече стана ясна историята на ATi Radeon 9800SE 256bit :)
Не ми пука какво мислят за мен хората, пука ми само какво мислят за мен хората, за които ми пука!
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#17
Потребителят е неактивен   debug 

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Не съм флашвал видео-карта, тъй като откакто работя нямам време за игри и видеото не ми е приоритет (МХ 400 :) ). Имам известна предства как се прави, но ще е по-добре ако се включи някой с повече опит - Neotrace, Guardian или който се чувства подготвен.
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#18
Потребителят е неактивен   shnif 

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:) :) :)
ЕВАЛА момчета много добра тема сте направили!!! Аз като си флашвах за първи път биос-а едиствената информациякоято открих беше биос-а и "Не правете това ако не знаете как става" е незнаех но го направих :) ... пък то и взе че стана!!! Моят начин на флашване е че си копирам файловете на новият биос на D (който е системен), рестартирам, и му давам на BOOT ORDER да зарежда от D и готово. Няма дискети няма страх пък и е много по бързо... Това сега иначе на времето включвах UPSа и спокойно си качвах краката на масата...
Обаче имам един въпрос аз имам RIVA TNT2 за пръв път чувам че може да се overclock-не има ли смисъл и как се прави??? :)
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#19
Потребителят е неактивен   soulcleaver 

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Я ми кажи много точно с не повече от 10 - 15 думи , какво помага тоя флаш и как да разбера дали е флашван вече , че съм си прост колкото искам , нали ги знаеш ония миризливи малки геимърчета ,дето като ги пипне вирус смятат че играта ги е намразила заради дето са прекалено добри :) , е аз сам нещо подобно , само че 90 кила вариант :) смисъл знам да цъкам игрички и основни неща по винбоза да оправям , ама тва не го разбирам 8) или по лесно :
Аз знам , че нищо не знам
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#20
Потребителят е неактивен   debug 

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Хм, как да разбереш дали ти е флашван вече биоса? Честно да си кажа не знам да има начин, освен да провериш инженерната версия (ревизия) на дъното и кой биос съответства на нея в сайта на производителя или с ровене по интернет.
Дали има полза от флашването - обикновено с биоса има описание на промените, направени в дадена версия сравнение с предходната. Така че четеш и ако оправя някакви проблеми, които се срещат и при теб, или добавя нови функции, които мислиш, че ще ти са от полза - флашваш. Иначе само да сменяш номерчето като зарежда - полза няма.
Малко повече от 10-15 думи се получиха, дано съм бил полезен :)
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